Bruce F. Pennington

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In this paper, we consider the domain of executive functions (EFs) and their possible role in developmental psychopathologies. We first consider general theoretical and measurement issues involved in studying EFs and then review studies of EFs in four developmental psychopathologies: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD),(More)
One of the most prominent neuropsychologic theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that its symptoms arise from a primary deficit in executive functions (EF), defined as neurocognitive processes that maintain an appropriate problem-solving set to attain a later goal. To examine the validity of the EF theory, we conducted a(More)
A group of high-functioning autistic individuals was compared to a clinical control group matched on VIQ, age, sex and SES. Significant group differences were found on executive function, theory of mind, emotion perception and verbal memory tests, but not on spatial or other control measures. Second-order theory of mind and executive function deficits were(More)
DYX2 on 6p22 is the most replicated reading disability (RD) locus. By saturating a previously identified peak of association with single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we identified a large polymorphic deletion that encodes tandem repeats of putative brain-related transcription factor binding sites in intron 2 of DCDC2. Alleles of this compound repeat are(More)
This study examined memory functions in individuals with autism. Based on previous evidence of executive function (EF) deficits, we hypothesized that subjects with autism would demonstrate a pattern of intact and impaired memory functions similar to that found in other groups with EF deficits, such as patients with frontal lobe pathology. We compared the(More)
This study used a nonreferred sample of twins to contrast the performance of individuals with reading disability (RD; n = 93), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 52), RD and ADHD (n = 48), and neither RD nor ADHD (n = 121) on measures of phoneme awareness (PA) and executive functioning (EF). Exploratory factor analysis of the EF measures(More)
In a 3-year longitudinal study, middle- to upper-middle-class preschool children at high family risk (HR group, N = 67) and low family risk (LR group, N = 57) for dyslexia (or reading disability, RD), were evaluated yearly from before kindergarten to the end of second grade. Both phonological processing and literacy skills were tested at each of four time(More)
The vast literature concerning printed word identification either contradicts or provides ambiguous support for each of the central hypotheses of dual-process theory, the most widely accepted theory of printed word identification. In contrast, clear, positive support exists for an alternative subsymbolic approach that includes a central role for the process(More)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and(More)