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The first global assessment of amphibians provides new context for the well-publicized phenomenon of amphibian declines. Amphibians are more threatened and are declining more rapidly than either birds or mammals. Although many declines are due to habitat loss and overutilization, other, unidentified processes threaten 48% of rapidly declining species and(More)
As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes).(More)
Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and(More)
OVERVIEW Motivated by the need for a means to rapidly assess the vulnerability of species to climate change, NatureServe initiated an effort to develop the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index. The Index uses a scoring system that considers a species' predicted exposure to climate change within its range and factors associated with climate change(More)
OVERVIEW Motivated by the need for a means to rapidly assess the vulnerability of species to climate change, NatureServe developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index. The Index uses a scoring system that considers a species' predicted exposure to climate change within its range and factors associated with climate change sensitivity, each supported by(More)
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
Venom is a key innovation underlying the evolution of advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Despite this, very little is known about venom system structural diversification, toxin recruitment event timings, or toxin molecular evolution. A multidisciplinary approach was used to examine the diversification of the venom system and associated toxins across the full(More)
NatureServe is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing the scientific basis for effective conservation. D NatureServe Acknowledgments T his document provides comprehensive guidelines for assigning a conservation status rank to all elements of biodiversity tracked by NatureServe. Snow provided the programming skills and feedback to the working group(More)