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• 25 randomly chosen people in a room • What is the probability two or more of them have the same birthday? • Model simplifications for a simple combinatorial solution: – Ignore leap years – Assume all 365 days equally likely • What error from assumptions? • As n increases, clearly P{X = 1} increases. • If n = 366 (still ignoring leap years), we are sure to(More)
all rights reserved. This text may be freely shared among individuals, but it may not be republished in any medium without express written consent from the authors and advance notification of the editor. Abstract Null distributions of permutation tests for two-sample, paired, and block designs are simulated using the R statistical programming language. For(More)
Licensees of Release 11 CIS/ED are granted a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to copy and to distribute this User Guide to authorized users of the database. Each such copy must contain the title page and this page in its entirety. No bibliography, index, or other work (whether in computer-readable, printed or other form) derived from more than 250(More)
When population variances of observations in an ANOVA are a known function of their population means, many textbooks recommend using variance-stabilizing transformations. Examples are: square root transformation for Poisson data, arcsine of square root for binomial proportions, and log for exponential data. We investigate the usefulness of transformations(More)
• Birthdays are uniformly distributed throughout the year. For some species of animals, birthdays are mainly in the spring. But, for now at least, it seems reasonable to assume that humans are about as likely to be born on one day of the year as on another. • Ignore leap years and pretend there are only 365 possible birthdays. If someone was born in a leap(More)
Graphical and numerical illustrations of the effects of moderate to severe rounding of normal data on the values of test statistics, actual significance level, and power for one-sample t tests and paired t tests. Goodness-of-fit tests confirm that rounded normal data are not normal. Combinatorial computations, simulations, and graphs are made using R. The(More)