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Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians,(More)
Anthropogenic-derived stressors in the environment, such as contaminants, are increasingly considered important cofactors that may decrease the immune response of amphibians to pathogens. Few studies, however, have integrated amphibian disease and contaminants to test this multiple-stressor hypothesis for amphibian declines. We examined whether exposure to(More)
The context-dependent investigations of host-pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease(More)
In amphibians, thyroid hormones (THs) are the primary regulators of metamorphosis; however, their physiological role during embryogenesis remains unclear. First, we established complete developmental profiles for TH receptors (tr alpha and tr beta), deiodinases (dio; types 1, 2, 3), estrogen receptors (er alpha and er beta) and androgen receptor (ar) mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. OBJECTIVES Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern(More)
Exposure of amphibians to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) may alter differentiation of gonads, especially when exposures begin during early life stages. Gonadal differentiation was observed in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exposed as tadpoles to estrogenic (estradiol, ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol) and antiestrogenic(More)
Glyphosate-based herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the world. We compared the acute toxicity of the glyphosate end-use formulation Roundup Original to four North American amphibian species (Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, R. sylvatica, and Bufo americanus) and the toxicity of glyphosate technical, the polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant(More)
Steroidogenic enzymes and their steroid products play critical roles during gonadal differentiation in amphibians; however their roles during embryogenesis remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and activity of aromatase (cyp19; estrogen synthase) and 5 beta-reductase (srd5 beta; 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone synthase)(More)
Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using(More)
Investigations of premenstrual asthma (PMA) have been based on studies of asthmatics already aware of a deterioration of asthma premenstrually. Little is known, therefore, about relationships between the menstrual cycle and airway function in asthmatics who do not complain of PMA or in normal subjects. We investigated airway function in both of these groups(More)