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Effects of climate change on productivity of agricultural crops in relation to diseases that attack them are difficult to predict because they are complex and nonlinear. To investigate these crop-disease-climate interactions, UKCIP02 scenarios predicting UK temperature and rainfall under high- and low-CO(2) emission scenarios for the 2020s and 2050s were(More)
Microbe-host interactions can be categorised as pathogenic, parasitic or mutualistic, but in practice few examples exactly fit these descriptions. New molecular methods are providing insights into the dynamics of microbe-host interactions, with most microbes changing their relationship with their host at different life-cycle stages or in response to(More)
This review considers factors affecting the coexistence of closely related pathogen species on arable crops, with particular reference to data available at Rothamsted for Septoria tritici/Stagonospora nodorum (Mycosphaerella graminicola/Phaeosphaeria nodorum) (septoria leaf blotch diseases on winter wheat), Oculimacula yallundae/O. acuformis (eyespot(More)
Phoma stem canker of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is a globally important disease that is caused by the sibling ascomycete species Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa. Sixty fungal isolates obtained from oilseed rape stems with phoma stem canker disease symptoms collected from four provinces in China in 1999, 2005 and 2006 were all identified as(More)
The term green island was first used to describe an area of living, green tissue surrounding a site of infection by an obligately biotrophic fungal pathogen, differentiated from neighbouring yellowing, senescent tissue. However, it has now been used to describe symptoms formed in response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, virus infection and infestation by(More)
It has frequently been hypothesized that quantitative resistance increases the durability of qualitative (R-gene mediated) resistance but supporting experimental evidence is rare. To test this hypothesis, near-isogenic lines with/without the R-gene Rlm6 introduced into two Brassica napus cultivars differing in quantitative resistance to Leptosphaeria(More)
Relationships between weather, agronomic factors and wheat disease abundance were examined to determine possible causes of variability on century time scales. In archived samples of wheat grain and leaves obtained from the Rothamsted Broadbalk experiment archive (1844-2003), amounts of wheat, Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola DNA were(More)
This review describes environmental factors that influence severity of crop disease epidemics, especially in the UK and north-west Europe, in order to assess the effects of climate change on crop growth and yield and severity of disease epidemics. While work on some diseases, such as phoma stem canker of oilseed rape and fusarium ear blight of wheat, that(More)
BACKGROUND The U.K. government has published plans to reduce U.K. agriculture's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, the goal of global food security requires an increase in arable crop yields. Foliar disease control measures such as fungicides have an important role in meeting both objectives. RESULTS It is estimated that U.K. winter barley(More)
Near-isogenic Brassica napus lines carrying/lacking resistance gene Rlm6 were used to investigate the effects of temperature and leaf wetness duration on phenotypic expression of Rlm6-mediated resistance. Leaves were inoculated with ascospores or conidia of Leptosphaeria maculans carrying the effector gene AvrLm6. Incubation period to the onset of lesion(More)