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Microbe-host interactions can be categorised as pathogenic, parasitic or mutualistic, but in practice few examples exactly fit these descriptions. New molecular methods are providing insights into the dynamics of microbe-host interactions, with most microbes changing their relationship with their host at different life-cycle stages or in response to(More)
R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed 'effector-triggered defence' (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R(More)
12 13 Climate change will have direct impacts on fusarium ear blight (FEB) in wheat crops, since 14 weather factors greatly affect epidemics, the relative proportions of species of ear blight 15 pathogens responsible and the production of deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin by two Fusarium 16 species, F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Many established weather-based(More)
This review describes environmental factors that influence severity of crop disease epidemics, especially in the UK and north-west Europe, in order to assess the effects of climate change on crop growth and yield and severity of disease epidemics. While work on some diseases, such as phoma stem canker of oilseed rape and fusarium ear blight of wheat, that(More)
When airborne propagules of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa were collected in Poland at three ecologically different sites from 1 September to 30 November in 2004 to 2008, using a Hirst-type seven-day volumetric spore trap, there were fluctuations in timing of ascospore release and diverse ratios between airborne propagules of both species depending(More)
Crop disease not only threatens global food security by reducing crop production at a time of growing demand, but also contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing efficiency of N fertiliser use and farm operations and by driving land use change. GHG emissions associated with adoption of reduced tillage, organic and integrated systems of field(More)
Phoma stem canker of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is a globally important disease that is caused by the sibling ascomycete species Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa. Sixty fungal isolates obtained from oilseed rape stems with phoma stem canker disease symptoms collected from four provinces in China in 1999, 2005 and 2006 were all identified as(More)
In the UK, fungicides are often used to control phoma stem canker on winter oilseed rape. Field trials were established near Boxworth, Cambridgeshire for four cropping seasons (2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/15) to test the efficacy of a new fungicide mixture Refinzar® (penthiopyrad + picoxystrobin) by comparison to an existing fungicide Proline(More)
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