Bruce D. Gaynor

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CONTEXT Mass antibiotic administrations for ocular chlamydial infection play a key role in the World Health Organization's trachoma control program. Mathematical models suggest that it is possible to eliminate trachoma locally with repeat mass treatment, depending on the coverage level of the population, frequency of mass treatments, and rate that infection(More)
CONTEXT The World Health Organization recommends mass antibiotic distributions in its strategy to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health concern. Some hypothesize that a single distribution is sufficient to control the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. Others believe infection will inevitably return and periodic treatments or other(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotics are a major tool in the WHO's trachoma control program. Even a single mass distribution reduces the prevalence of the ocular chlamydia that causes trachoma. Unfortunately, infection returns after a single treatment, at least in severely affected areas. Here, we test whether additional scheduled treatments further reduce infection, and(More)
Mass administration of azithromycin to eliminate blindness due to trachoma has raised concerns regarding the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. During 2000, we compared the antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates recovered from and the prevalence of impetigo, respiratory symptoms, and diarrhea among 458 children in Nepal before(More)
AIM To compare the prevalence of antibiotic resistance found in nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae between villages treated with topical tetracycline or systemic azithromycin as part of a trachoma control programme. METHODS All children aged 1-10 years were offered either single dose oral azithromycin treatment (20 mg/kg) or a course of topical 1%(More)
The common wisdom is that a trachoma program cannot eliminate ocular chlamydia from a community, just reduce infection to a level where blindness would be minimal. We describe the success of multiple mass antibiotic treatments, demonstrating that complete elimination of infection may be an attainable goal in an area with modest disease.
CONTEXT Mass oral azithromycin distribution to affected communities is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization's trachoma elimination program. Antibiotics are provided to target the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but may also be efficacious against respiratory disease, diarrhea, and malaria--frequent causes of childhood mortality in(More)
Antibodies to double-stranded DNA are pathognomonic of systemic lupus erythematosus and deposit in the kidneys of lupus patients to cause glomerulonephritis. Recent data suggest that a significant proportion of anti-DNA antibodies may cross-react with renal antigens and be sequestered in the kidney by virtue of this cross-reactivity. If this is true,(More)
The 8.12 idiotype characterizes a subpopulation of anti-DNA antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The idiotype is present on lambda light chains and has previously been shown to be exclusively encoded by V lambda II light chains. RFLP analysis of the V lambda II gene family has shown the family to consist of 10 to 15 members. Thus(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass antibiotic distributions to reduce the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Their stated goal is to control infection, not to completely eliminate it. A single mass distribution can dramatically reduce the prevalence of infection.(More)