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CONTEXT Mass antibiotic administrations for ocular chlamydial infection play a key role in the World Health Organization's trachoma control program. Mathematical models suggest that it is possible to eliminate trachoma locally with repeat mass treatment, depending on the coverage level of the population, frequency of mass treatments, and rate that infection(More)
CONTEXT Treatment recommendations assume that repeated mass antibiotic distributions can control, but not eradicate or even locally eliminate, the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. Elimination may be an important end point because of concern that infection will return to communities that have lost immunity to chlamydia after antibiotics are(More)
BACKGROUND Mass azithromycin distributions are used to clear ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but treatments may also affect respiratory infections, diarrhea, and malaria. Here, we monitor a large cohort in which almost 90% of individuals received azithromycin. We assess whether receiving treatment is associated with reduced all-cause and(More)
BACKGROUND Undernutrition is an important risk factor for childhood mortality, and remains a major problem facing many developing countries. Millennium Development Goal 1 calls for a reduction in underweight children, implemented through a variety of interventions. To adequately judge the impact of these interventions, it is important to know the(More)
OBJECTIVE Investigate a role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in osteoarthritis (OA)-related pain. DESIGN Neutralizing antibodies to CGRP were generated de novo. One of these antibodies, LY2951742, was characterized in vitro and tested in pre-clinical in vivo models of OA pain. RESULTS LY2951742 exhibited high affinity to both human and rat(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely thought that widespread antibiotic use selects for community antibiotic resistance, though this has been difficult to prove in the setting of a community-randomized clinical trial. In this study, we used a randomized clinical trial design to assess whether macrolide resistance was higher in communities treated with mass azithromycin(More)
CONTEXT The World Health Organization recommends mass antibiotic distributions in its strategy to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health concern. Some hypothesize that a single distribution is sufficient to control the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. Others believe infection will inevitably return and periodic treatments or other(More)
CONTEXT Mass oral azithromycin distribution to affected communities is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization's trachoma elimination program. Antibiotics are provided to target the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but may also be efficacious against respiratory disease, diarrhea, and malaria--frequent causes of childhood mortality in(More)
AIMS To determine if macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae will be a major concern in areas that receive annual mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma. METHODS A cross sectional survey was conducted of nasopharyngeal S pneumoniae isolates for susceptibility to azithromycin 1 year after administering a single dose of azithromycin to treat(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass antibiotic distributions to reduce the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Their stated goal is to control infection, not to completely eliminate it. A single mass distribution can dramatically reduce the prevalence of infection.(More)