Bruce Chesebro

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It has been proposed that changes in cell surface concentrations of coreceptors may control infections by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms of coreceptor function and the concentration dependencies of their activities are unknown. To study these issues and to generate stable clones of adherent cells able to efficiently titer(More)
In prion and Alzheimer's diseases, the roles played by amyloid versus nonamyloid deposits in brain damage remain unresolved. In scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing prion protein (PrP) lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, abnormal protease-resistant PrPres was deposited as amyloid plaques, rather than the usual nonamyloid(More)
Previous experiments indicate that the V3 hypervariable region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein influences cell tropism of infection; however, so far no consistent V3 sequence can account for macrophage or T-cell tropism. In these experiments, we studied infectious recombinant HIV clones constructed by using V3 region sequences of(More)
Naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle are probably transmitted by oral or other peripheral routes of infection. While prion protein (PrP) is required for susceptibility, the mechanism of spread of infection to the brain is not clear. Two prominent possibilities include(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To(More)
Recovery from Friend virus 3 (Rfv3) is a single autosomal gene encoding a resistance trait that influences retroviral neutralizing antibody responses and viremia. Despite extensive research for 30 years, the molecular identity of Rfv3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Rfv3 is encoded by Apobec3. Apobec3 maps to the same chromosome region as(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the brain results in viral replication primarily in macrophages and microglia. Despite frequent detection of viral genome and proteins in the brains of AIDS patients with and without HIV dementia, only 20% of AIDS patients become demented. To investigate the role of viral envelope gene variation in(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by spongiosis, astrocytosis and accumulation of PrPSc, an isoform of the normal host protein PrPC. The exact cell types responsible for agent propagation and pathogenesis are still uncertain. To determine the possible role of astrocytes, we generated mice devoid of murine PrP but expressing hamster(More)
The prion (infectious protein) concept has evolved with the discovery of new self-propagating protein states in organisms as diverse as mammals and fungi. The infectious agent of the mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) has long been considered the prototypical prion, and recent cell-free propagation and biophysical analyses of TSE(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia is a common clinical syndrome of uncertain pathogenesis in patients with AIDS. In several animal models of retrovirus-induced brain disease, specific viral envelope sequences have been found to influence the occurrence of central nervous system disease. Therefore, to search for unique envelope sequences correlated(More)