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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by spongiosis, astrocytosis and accumulation of PrPSc, an isoform of the normal host protein PrPC. The exact cell types responsible for agent propagation and pathogenesis are still uncertain. To determine the possible role of astrocytes, we generated mice devoid of murine PrP but expressing hamster(More)
Virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS) often results in chemokine upregulation. Although often associated with lymphocyte recruitment, increased chemokine expression is also associated with non-lymphocyte-mediated CNS disease. In these instances, the effect of chemokine upregulation on neurological disease is unclear. In vitro, several(More)
In prion and Alzheimer's diseases, the roles played by amyloid versus nonamyloid deposits in brain damage remain unresolved. In scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing prion protein (PrP) lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, abnormal protease-resistant PrPres was deposited as amyloid plaques, rather than the usual nonamyloid(More)
The prion (infectious protein) concept has evolved with the discovery of new self-propagating protein states in organisms as diverse as mammals and fungi. The infectious agent of the mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) has long been considered the prototypical prion, and recent cell-free propagation and biophysical analyses of TSE(More)
It has been proposed that changes in cell surface concentrations of coreceptors may control infections by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms of coreceptor function and the concentration dependencies of their activities are unknown. To study these issues and to generate stable clones of adherent cells able to efficiently titer(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia is a common clinical syndrome of uncertain pathogenesis in patients with AIDS. In several animal models of retrovirus-induced brain disease, specific viral envelope sequences have been found to influence the occurrence of central nervous system disease. Therefore, to search for unique envelope sequences correlated(More)
Naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle are probably transmitted by oral or other peripheral routes of infection. While prion protein (PrP) is required for susceptibility, the mechanism of spread of infection to the brain is not clear. Two prominent possibilities include(More)
Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by several viruses can lead to upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In immunocompetent adults, these molecules induce prominent inflammatory infiltrates. However, with immunosuppressive retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), little CNS inflammation is observed yet(More)
A variety of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses cause neurodegenerative disease. We describe here the clinical and histopathological features of a neurologic disease induced by a polytropic murine leukemia virus, FMCF98. Clinical disease was dominated by hyperexcitability and ataxia, and the histopathology was characterized primarily by astrocytosis and(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that occur in a wide variety of mammals. In humans, TSE diseases include kuru, sporadic and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). So far, TSE diseases occur only rarely in humans;(More)