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The prion (infectious protein) concept has evolved with the discovery of new self-propagating protein states in organisms as diverse as mammals and fungi. The infectious agent of the mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) has long been considered the prototypical prion, and recent cell-free propagation and biophysical analyses of TSE(More)
In prion and Alzheimer's diseases, the roles played by amyloid versus nonamyloid deposits in brain damage remain unresolved. In scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing prion protein (PrP) lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, abnormal protease-resistant PrPres was deposited as amyloid plaques, rather than the usual nonamyloid(More)
Multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains with reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations at codons A62-->V, V75-->I, F77-->L, F116-->Y, and Q151-->M have been reported in patients receiving combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) and didanosine (ddI). Infectious clones with each mutation alone, all five mutations together, and(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by spongiosis, astrocytosis and accumulation of PrPSc, an isoform of the normal host protein PrPC. The exact cell types responsible for agent propagation and pathogenesis are still uncertain. To determine the possible role of astrocytes, we generated mice devoid of murine PrP but expressing hamster(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia is a common clinical syndrome of uncertain pathogenesis in patients with AIDS. In several animal models of retrovirus-induced brain disease, specific viral envelope sequences have been found to influence the occurrence of central nervous system disease. Therefore, to search for unique envelope sequences correlated(More)
In the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), accumulation of the abnormal disease-specific prion protein is associated with neurodegeneration. Previous data suggested that abnormal prion protein (PrP) could induce neuronal pathology only when neurons expressed the normal form of PrP, but conflicting evidence also has been reported. Understanding(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are characterized by the accumulation in brain of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), PrP-res. PrP-res conformation differs among TSE agents derived from various sources, and these conformational differences are thought to influence the biological characteristics(More)
To study the effect of cell type-restricted hamster PrP expression on susceptibility to the hamster scrapie agent, we generated transgenic mice using a 1 kb hamster cDNA clone containing the 0.76 kb HPrP open reading frame under control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. In these mice, expression of HPrP was detected only in brain tissue, with highest(More)
It has been proposed that changes in cell surface concentrations of coreceptors may control infections by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms of coreceptor function and the concentration dependencies of their activities are unknown. To study these issues and to generate stable clones of adherent cells able to efficiently titer(More)
Scrapie is a transmissible neurodegenerative disease that appears to result from an accumulation in the brain of an abnormal protease-resistant isoform of prion protein (PrP) called PrPsc. Conversion of the normal, protease-sensitive form of PrP (PrPc) to protease-resistant forms like PrPsc has been demonstrated in a cell-free reaction composed largely of(More)