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INTRODUCTION Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder for which currently there is no accepted definition. Having a uniform standard for diagnosing and classifying AKI would enhance our ability to manage these patients. Future clinical and translational research in AKI will require collaborative networks of investigators drawn from various(More)
The progression of a natural bacterial infection is a dynamic process influenced by the physiological characteristics of the target organ. Recent developments in live animal imaging allow for the study of the dynamic microbe-host interplay in real-time as the infection progresses within an organ of a live host. Here we used multiphoton microscopy-based live(More)
Endothelial dysfunction contributes significantly to acute renal failure (ARF) during inflammatory diseases including septic shock. Previous studies have shown that activated protein C (APC) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and modulates endothelial function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of APC on ARF in a rat model of endotoxemia. Rats(More)
Optical microscopy, when applied to living animals, provides a powerful means of studying cell biology in the most physiologically relevant setting. The ability of two-photon microscopy to collect optical sections deep into biological tissues has opened up the field of intravital microscopy to high-resolution studies of the brain, lens, skin, and tumors.(More)
Protein C is a plasma serine protease that when activated plays a central role in modulating the function of the vascular endothelium and its interface with the innate immune system. Activated protein C (APC) has a dual mechanism of action via the feedback inhibition of thrombin generation, and as an agonist of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Through(More)
Proximal tubule cells play an essential role in the reabsorption of ions, water, and solutes from the glomerular filtrate. This is accomplished, in large part, by having a surface membrane polarized into structurally, biochemically, and physiologically distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains separated by cellular junctional complexes. Establishment(More)
Acute kidney injury has become a major focus for nephrologists and critical care physicians. The development of structural biomarkers is proceeding, but the results to date have been disappointing. The use of a shortened creatinine clearance as a functional acute kidney injury biomarker is not new but has not been compared with that of other diagnostic(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI), due to its increasing incidence, associated morbidity and mortality, and potential for development of chronic kidney disease with acceleration to end-stage renal disease, has become of major interest to nephrologists and critical care physicians. The development of biomarkers to diagnose AKI, quantify risk and predict prognosis is(More)
Running tit le: Intravital 2-photon microscopy of kidney ABSTRACT Optical microscopy, when applied to living animals, provides a powerful means of studying cell biology in the most physiologically relevant setting. The ability of 2-photon microscopy to collect optical sections deep into biological tissues has opened up the field of intravital microscopy to(More)