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No-tillage and reduced tillage (NT/RT) management practices are being promoted in agroecosystems to reduce erosion, sequester additional soil C and reduce production costs. The impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions, however, has been variable with both increases and decreases in emissions reported. Herein, we quantitatively synthesize studies on the short- and(More)
One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support(More)
Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM)(More)
In northern Laos, shortened fallows in the slash-and-burn upland rice system are not sustainable either from a production or economic standpoint. This paper evaluates the potential for using the indigenous fast-growing tree, Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent. (paper mulberry) as an economic fallow crop. The objectives of this study are to assess the inner(More)
Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than most crops. The objective of this study was to(More)
To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis(More)
Water quality concerns have arisen related to rice (Oryza sativa L.) field drain water, which has the potential to contribute large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) to the Sacramento River. Field-scale losses of DOC or TDS have yet to be quantified. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seasonal(More)
Knowledge of residual benefits from previously applied P is crucial to maximize economic returns to current P inputs. We measured the residual benefits of P fertilizer on three summer soybean crops grown on a Hawaiian Ultisol over a three-year period. Four rates of P had been applied to four crops (P build-up phase) prior to the residual phase of this(More)
In northern Laos, upland rice is grown as a subsistence crop under rainfed conditions with no fertilizer inputs. It has traditionally been grown under slash-and-burn systems with long fallows, which restore soil fertility and reduce insect and weed pressure. However, increasing population density and government policies aimed at reducing the area under(More)
Irrigated croplands can be a major source of nitrate-N (NO-N) in groundwater due to leaching. In California, where high NO-N levels have been found in some areas of the Central Valley aquifer, the contribution from rice systems has not been determined. Nitrate leaching from rice systems was evaluated from soil cores (0-2 m), from the fate of N fertilizer in(More)