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—This paper describes both a near term and a long term optical interconnect solution, the first based on a packaging architecture and the second based on a monolithic photonic CMOS architecture. The packaging-based optical I/O architecture implemented with 90 nm CMOS transceiver circuits, 1 12 VCSEL/detector arrays and polymer waveguides achieves 10(More)
The skeletal muscles of chickens, frogs, and fish have been reported to express two isoforms (alpha and beta) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor or RYR), while mammals express only one. We have studied patterns of RYR isoform expression in skeletal muscles from a variety of fish, reptiles, and birds with immunological(More)
Myoglobin (Mb) buffers intracellular O2 and facilitates diffusion of O2 through the cell. These functions of Mb will be most effective when intracellular PO2 is near the partial pressure of oxygen at which Mb is half saturated (P50) of the molecule. We test the hypothesis that Mb oxygen affinity has evolved such that it is conserved when adjusted for body(More)
Marlins, sailfish, spearfishes, and swordfish have extraocular muscles that are modified into thermogenic organs beneath the brain. The modified muscle cells, called heater cells, lack organized myofibrils and are densely packed with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), transverse (T) tubules, and mitochondria. Thermogenesis in the modified extraocular muscle(More)
Mackerels, tunas, and billfishes (suborder Scombroidei and Teleostei) provide an ideal taxonomic context in which to examine the evolution of endothermy. Multiple origins and diverse strategies for endothermy exist among these fish. Here a molecular phylogeny of the Scombroidei has been determined by direct sequencing of a portion of the mitochondrial(More)
We have cloned a group of cDNAs that encodes the skeletal ryanodine receptor isoform (RyR1) of fish from a blue marlin extraocular muscle library. The cDNAs encode a protein of 5,081 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 576,302 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence shows strong sequence identity to previously characterized RyR1 isoforms. An RNA(More)
The microprocessor architecture transition from multi-core to many-core will drive increased chip-to-chip I/O bandwidth demands at processor/memory interfaces and in multi-processor systems. Future architectures will require bandwidths of 200GB/s to 1.0TB/s and will bring about the era of tera-scale computing. To meet these bandwidth demands, traditional(More)
Two distinct skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) are expressed in a fiber type-specific manner in fish skeletal muscle (11). In this study, we compare [(3)H]ryanodine binding and single channel activity of RyR1-slow from fish slow-twitch skeletal muscle with RyR1-fast and RyR3 isolated from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Scatchard plots indicate that(More)
Mitochondria from the muscle-derived thermogenic (heater) organ and oxidative red muscle of the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) were studied in order to evaluate aspects of the mechanism of thermogenesis in heater tissue. We investigated whether short-term Ca(2+)-induced uncoupling of mitochondria contributes to the thermogenic cycle of the heater organ by(More)