Learn More
The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies have shown that exposure to common, low-level environmental contaminants [e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead] causes excessive and inappropriate responding on intermittent reinforcement schedules. The Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates task (DRL) has been shown to be especially sensitive to low-level PCB exposure in(More)
We previously reported a relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and impulsive (excessive) responding on a continuous performance task in children at 4 1/2 years of age [P.W. Stewart, S. Fitzgerald, J. Reihman, B. Gump, E. Lonky, T. Darvill, J. Pagano, P. Hauser, Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition, Environmental Health(More)
A number of studies have found that increasing lead exposure is associated with increases in blood pressure in humans. Studies with animals suggest that lead-induced increases in vascular resistance account for these increases in blood pressure. The present study assessed cardiovascular functioning at rest and in response to acute stress for 9(1/2) year old(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the effects of partner interactions on ambulatory blood pressure in a sample of 120 healthy adults who were monitored over a 6-day period. METHODS After each blood pressure measurement, participants rated characteristics of ongoing social interactions, along with emotional activation, physical activity,(More)
BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated relationships between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and modest cognitive impairments in infancy and early childhood. However, few studies have followed cohorts of exposed children long enough to examine the possible impact of prenatal PCB exposure on psychometric intelligence(More)
BACKGROUND A few recent studies have demonstrated heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to acute stress in animals exposed to heavy metal contaminants, particularly lead. However, Pb-induced dysregulation of the HPA axis has not yet been studied in humans. OBJECTIVE In this study, we examined children's cortisol response to acute(More)
Female participants were exposed to high or low threat in the presence of another person believed to be facing either the same or a different situation. In Study 1, each dyad consisted of 2 actual participants, whereas in Study 2, each dyad consisted of 1 participant and 1 confederate, trained to convey either a calm or a nervous reaction to the situation.(More)
This study tested whether dispositional measures of optimism, pessimism, and anxiety affected ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and mood and whether any cardiovascular effects of dispositions were moderated by mood. Pessimistic and anxious adults had higher BP levels and felt more negative and less positive than did optimists or low anxious adults throughout(More)
In African American and White children and adolescents (N = 147), socioeconomic status (SES) was measured in 2 ways: (a) using neighborhood-level measures of population density, median income, educational attainment, and the number of children born to single mothers and (b) using family-level measures of parents' occupation and education. Structural(More)