Brooks B. Gump

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The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies have shown that exposure to common, low-level environmental contaminants [e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead] causes excessive and inappropriate responding on intermittent reinforcement schedules. The Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates task (DRL) has been shown to be especially sensitive to low-level PCB exposure in(More)
We previously reported a relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and impulsive (excessive) responding on a continuous performance task in children at 4 1/2 years of age [P.W. Stewart, S. Fitzgerald, J. Reihman, B. Gump, E. Lonky, T. Darvill, J. Pagano, P. Hauser, Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition, Environmental Health(More)
BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated relationships between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and modest cognitive impairments in infancy and early childhood. However, few studies have followed cohorts of exposed children long enough to examine the possible impact of prenatal PCB exposure on psychometric intelligence(More)
Female participants were exposed to high or low threat in the presence of another person believed to be facing either the same or a different situation. In Study 1, each dyad consisted of 2 actual participants, whereas in Study 2, each dyad consisted of 1 participant and 1 confederate, trained to convey either a calm or a nervous reaction to the situation.(More)
This study tests the influence of chronic stress on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to and recovery from acute stressors and whether the effects are gender specific. Sixty-two healthy, middle-aged persons (50% women) performed mental-arithmetic and public-speaking tasks and relaxed thereafter for 1 hr while their cardiovascular and(More)
A number of studies have found that increasing lead exposure is associated with increases in blood pressure in humans. Studies with animals suggest that lead-induced increases in vascular resistance account for these increases in blood pressure. The present study assessed cardiovascular functioning at rest and in response to acute stress for 9(1/2) year old(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Depression may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We evaluated long-term mortality risk associated with depressive symptoms measured at middle age among men at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS 12,866 men without definite evidence of CHD at study entry but who had above average risk of CHD(More)
BACKGROUND A few recent studies have demonstrated heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to acute stress in animals exposed to heavy metal contaminants, particularly lead. However, Pb-induced dysregulation of the HPA axis has not yet been studied in humans. OBJECTIVE In this study, we examined children's cortisol response to acute(More)
BACKGROUND Acute life stressors can trigger premature death, but the role of more enduring, chronic stressors is less clear. We evaluated men's mortality risk associated with number of different work stressors and marital dissolution during the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). METHODS Men without definite evidence of coronary heart disease(More)