Learn More
BACKGROUND People who inject drugs (PWID) have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We update and present estimates and trends of the prevalence of current PWID and PWID subpopulations in 96 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 1992-2007. Current estimates of PWID and PWID subpopulations will help target services and help to understand(More)
BACKGROUND Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality(More)
The health consequences for HIV-affected families of insufficient access to safe water and sanitation are particularly dire: inadequate access complicates medication adherence and increases vulnerability to opportunistic infections for persons living with HIV. The gendered nature of water collection and HIV care--with women disproportionately bearing the(More)
OBJECTIVES We used a structural interventions framework to analyse the associations between power and condom use among a sample of female sex workers (FSW), and how exposure to a local community mobilization intervention (CMI) affects these associations. DESIGN Data came from a cross-sectional survey of 812 FSW in the East Godavari district of Andhra(More)
Three heterophile antibody tests and a test specific for IgM antibody to Epstein-Barr virus were evaluated during prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis. Specificity was judged by the frequency of false-positive results in sera of known qualities taken before illness; except for two patients bled during early, unrecognized illnes,, titers of(More)
BACKGROUND The accuracy of behavioral data related to risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is prone to misreporting because of social desirability effects. Because computer-assisted approaches are not always feasible, a noncomputerized interview method for reducing social desirability effects is needed. The previous performance of(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the relationships between mobility characteristics and sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. METHODS Participants completed a structured interview covering sociodemographics, mobility characteristics, sexual behaviors, and biomarkers for HIV, HCV, and syphilis. We used multivariate(More)
OBJECTIVES We estimated race/ethnicity-specific incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess the change in disparities after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dissemination. METHODS We compared IARs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for black/African(More)
Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and(More)