Brook G. Milligan

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Recent advances in the application of the polymerase chain reaction make it possible to score individuals at a large number of loci. The RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) method is one such technique that has attracted widespread interest. The analysis of population structure with RAPD data is hampered by the lack of complete genotypic information(More)
Long-distance seed dispersal influences many key aspects of the biology of plants, including spread of invasive species, metapopulation dynamics, and diversity and dynamics in plant communities. However, because long-distance seed dispersal is inherently hard to measure, there are few data sets that characterize the tails of seed dispersal curves. This(More)
Relatedness between individuals is central to many studies in genetics and population biology. A variety of estimators have been developed to enable molecular marker data to quantify relatedness. Despite this, no effort has been given to characterize the traditional maximum-likelihood estimator in relation to the remainder. This article quantifies its(More)
While DNA-based markers can provide a wealth of information for the study of plant evolutionary biology, progress is limited by the lack of primers available for PCR. To overcome this limitation, we outline a protocol for developing oligonucleotide primers targeting regions of low copy-number nuclear genes. This protocol is intended to lead to universally(More)
The plastid genome from subclover, Trifolium subterraneum, is unusual in a variety of respects, compared with other land-plant chloroplast DNAs. Gene mapping of subclover chloroplast DNA reveals major structural reorganization of the genome. Ten clusters of genes are rearranged in both order and orientation. Eight large inversions are sufficient to explain(More)
The nature of heterotachy at the center of recent controversy over the relative performance of tree-building methods is different from the form of heterotachy that has been inferred in empirical studies. The latter have suggested that proportions of variable sites (p(var)) vary among orthologues and among paralogues. However, the strength of this inference,(More)
Recently, we reported the discovery of several potential rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses in western (Holochilus chacarius) and eastern Paraguay (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, and O. nigripes). Comparisons of the hantavirus S- and M-segments amplified from these four rodents revealed significant differences from each another and from other(More)
Theoretical studies of character displacement lead to the view that evolutionary divergence depends primarily on incomplete utilization of available resources. Those models which incorporate constraints preventing complete utilization of resources, even in the absence of competitors, all predict character displacement. Those models which allow greater(More)
The degree to which conspecific populations are interconnected via ongoing gene flow remains an important focus of evolutionary biology. One major difficulty in distinguishing ongoing gene flow from historical subdivision is that either process can generate similar estimates of apparent gene flow. Thus, gene flow estimates themselves are insufficient to(More)
Plant mating systems often involve a mixture of self fertilizations and outcross fertilizations. The degree of selfing has a large impact on the genetic composition of natural populations and on the evolution of the mating system itself in response to such factors as inbreeding depression. This paper describes a means of estimating the long-term rate of(More)