Learn More
The NOD/Lt mouse, a widely used model of human autoimmune IDDM, was used to establish the mode of beta-cell death responsible for the development of IDDM. Apoptotic cells were present within the islets of Langerhans in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of pancreases harvested from 3- to 18-week-old female NOD/Lt mice (a range of 11-50 apoptotic cells(More)
CTLs are important mediators of pancreatic beta cell destruction in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Cross-presentation of Ag is one means of priming CTLs. The death of Ag-bearing cells has been implicated in facilitating this mode of priming. The role of beta cell death in facilitating the onset of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes is(More)
The success of helminth parasites is partly related to their ability to modulate host immune responses towards an anti-inflammatory/regulatory phenotype. This ability resides with the molecules contained in the secretome of various helminths that have been shown to interact with host immune cells and influence their function. Consequently, there exists a(More)
The kinetics of beta-cell death in neonatal diabetes-prone (BBdp) and diabetes-resistant (BBdr) BioBreeding rats was investigated using both direct (histochemical) and indirect (mathematical modelling) techniques. In both BBdp and BBdr rats, the incidence of TUNEL positive beta-cells increased until 10 days of age before declining. The number of apoptotic(More)
Infections with helminth parasites prevent/attenuate auto-inflammatory disease. Here we show that molecules secreted by a helminth parasite could prevent Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When delivered at 4 weeks of age (coincident with the initiation of autoimmunity), the excretory/secretory products of Fasciola hepatica (FhES)(More)
Macrophages limit inflammatory responses by clearing apoptotic cells. Deficiencies in apoptotic cell phagocytosis have been linked to autoimmunity. In this study, we determined the efficiency with which macrophages from diabetes-prone NOD and diabetes-resistant NOR, Idd5, Balb/c, and C57BL/6 mice phagocytose apoptotic thymocytes and NIT-1 insulinoma cells.(More)
Although insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) results from irreversible loss of beta cells, the mode of cell death responsible for this loss has not previously been categorized. In this study, the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (stz) model (intraperitoneal injection of stz at a concentration of 40 mg/kg body weight per day for five consecutive days)(More)
We previously reported the identification of a novel family of immunomodulatory proteins, termed helminth defense molecules (HDMs), that are secreted by medically important trematode parasites. Since HDMs share biochemical, structural, and functional characteristics with mammalian cathelicidin-like host defense peptides (HDPs), we proposed that HDMs(More)
Parasitic worms (helminths) reside in their mammalian hosts for many years. This is attributable, in part, to their ability to skew the host's immune system away from pro-inflammatory responses and towards anti-inflammatory or regulatory responses. This immune modulatory ability ensures helminth longevity within the host, while simultaneously minimises(More)
Deficiencies in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked to autoimmunity. Here we examined the time-course of peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of dying cells following the direct injection of apoptotic thymocytes into the peritoneum of NOD mice and BALB/c controls. Macrophages from NOD mice demonstrated a profound defect in the phagocytosis of apoptotic(More)