Bronwen AJ Evans

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BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but the likely multi-factorial causes contributing to this condition (e.g. sex, age, smoking, therapy) mask the potential contribution from elements related to COPD. In order to study osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) related to COPD, we studied a well-defined group of patients and controls.(More)
Between-community variance or community-by-time variance is one of the key factors driving the cost of conducting group randomized trials, which are often very expensive. We investigated empirically whether between-community variance could be reduced by controlling individual- and/or community-level covariates and identified these covariates from four large(More)
BACKGROUND Determining the presence and extent of co-morbidities is fundamental in assessing patients with chronic respiratory disease, where increased cardiovascular risk, presence of osteoporosis and low muscle mass have been recognised in several disease states. We hypothesised that the systemic consequences are evident in a further group of subjects(More)
Response data in longitudinal studies and group randomized trials are gathered on units that belong to clusters, within which data are usually positively correlated. Therefore, estimates and confidence intervals for intraclass correlation or variance components are helpful when designing a longitudinal study or group randomized trial. Data simulated from(More)
BACKGROUND The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the "milk-alkali syndrome"). The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium(More)
Background: Determining the presence and extent of co-morbidities is fundamental in assessing patients with chronic respiratory disease, where increased cardiovascular risk, presence of osteoporosis and low muscle mass have been recognised in several disease states. We hypothesised that the systemic consequences are evident in a further group of subjects(More)
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