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CRD summary This review evaluated the efficacy of electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The authors concluded that the evidence is insufficient to provide conclusive evidence for or against the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation or threshold electrical stimulation. Despite limitations in the review methodology, the authors'(More)
A randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in strengthening the quadriceps muscles of both legs in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Sixty children (38 males, 22 females; mean age 11y [SD 3y 6mo]; age range 5-16y) were randomized(More)
We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes' disease. We carried out a prospective trial in boys over the age of eight years and girls over seven years at the time of the onset of symptoms. The patients had minimal epiphyseal collapse and were compared with a conventionally treated,(More)
The concurrent validity of a 1 minute walk test at a child's maximum walking speed was assessed in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP). The distance covered during the 1 minute walk test was compared with the children's gross motor function as assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Twenty-four male and 10 female children with(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the comparative analgesic efficacy of H-wave therapy (HWT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) using a mechanical model of pain threshold measurement. STUDY DESIGN Forty-eight healthy human volunteers (24 women, 24 men) were recruited and randomly assigned into one of six experimental groups; control, HWT (placebo,(More)
While there is general clinical consensus that children with Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy (USCP) walk with an increased anterior pelvic tilt and the affected hemipelvis retracted, there is less agreement to observations in the coronal plane. Furthermore, the relationship of 3D pelvic kinematic parameters to the Winters, Gage and Hicks (WGH) hemiplegic(More)
In this paper, the relationship of the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to gross motor function and its ability to distinguish between different Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels was determined. A representative sample of 184 ambulant children with CP in GMFCS levels I (n=57), II (n=91), III (n=22) and IV (n=14) were recruited as part of a(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to use a prospective longitudinal study to describe age-related trends in energy efficiency during gait, activity, and participation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire-Cerebral(More)
An attempt was made to validate a system of calculating mechanical cost using 3-D motion analysis by using Oxygen cost measurements in 26 subjects with myelomeningocele. The three models investigated were (i) vertical excursion of the centre of mass (model 1), (ii) external work done by the centre of mass (CM) (model 2) and (iii) a full body model allowing(More)
The aim of the study was to establish if a relationship exists between the energy efficiency of gait, and measures of activity limitation, participation restriction, and health status in a representative sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Secondary aims were to investigate potential differences between clinical subtypes and gross motor(More)