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Evidence is presented for the differential effects of two isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo) E, apoE3 and apoE4, on neurite outgrowth and on the cytoskeleton of neuronal cells (Neuro-2a) in culture. In the presence of a lipid source, apoE3 enhances and apoE4 inhibits neurite outgrowth. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that there is a higher(More)
Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), one of the three common isoforms of apoE, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. The effects of apoE on neuronal growth were determined in cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In the presence of beta-migrating very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL), apoE3 increased neurite outgrowth, whereas apoE4 decreased outgrowth.(More)
The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease, suggesting that apoE may directly influence neurons in the aging brain. Recent data suggest that apoE-containing lipoproteins can influence neurite outgrowth in an isoform-specific fashion. The neuronal mediators of apoE effects have not been clarified. We show(More)
We evaluated the distribution of apolipoprotein E (apoE) immunoreactivity in mouse and human olfactory bulbs. ApoE immunoreactivity was present in the olfactory nerve and around the glomeruli. Immunoreactivity was seen in somata that appeared to be glial. No neuronal staining was seen. The apoE immunoreactivity was also present in the mouse olfactory bulb(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, has been postulated to participate in nerve regeneration. To better clarify apoE function in the olfactory system, we evaluated the amount and distribution of apoE in the olfactory bulb following olfactory nerve lesion in mice. Olfactory nerve was lesioned in 2- to 4-month-old mice by intranasal(More)
Literature review suggests a close relationship between estrogen and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in the central nervous system. Epidemiology studies show that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) decreases the morbidity from several chronic neurological diseases. Alleles of ApoE modify the risk for and progression of the same diseases. ApoE levels in the rodent(More)
The effects of ovarian hormone on neuronal growth and function are well known. However, equally important, but often neglected, are ovarian hormone effects on glia. Our in vivo and in vitro studies show that estradiol modifies both neuronal growth and glial activity and these effects are tightly linked. Estradiol stimulates neurite growth and the release of(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, has been shown to play a vital role in nerve repair and remodeling. Since the olfactory system is in a continuous state of remodeling, the present study tested the hypothesis that apoE is required for normal functioning of the olfactory system. Olfactory behavior of wild-type (WT) and apoE-deficient(More)
The apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) genotype is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanism is unknown. We previously demonstrated that apoE isoforms differentially modulated neurite outgrowth in embryonic neurons and in neuronal cell lines. ApoE3 increased neurite outgrowth whereas apoE4 decreased outgrowth, suggesting that apoE4 may(More)
The current study examined the effect of long-term estradiol replacement in ovariectomized mice. Estradiol-17beta (E2) pellets or vehicle pellets were implanted at the time of ovariectomy (OVX) in young adult female mice. Five mice from each group were sacrificed at 5, 14, 28 and 49 days after OVX and pellet replacement. Western blotting of homogenates from(More)