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Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of contexts, and it is increasingly clear that USVs reflect more complex information than mere positive and negative affect states. We sought to examine USVs in a common model of addiction and relapse, the self-administration/reinstatement paradigm, in order to gain insight into subjective states(More)
The high comorbidity of anxiety and depression suggests a potential degree of commonality in their etiologies. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model effectively replicates depressive-like phenotypes; however, the ability of CUS to produce anxiety-like behaviors has not been adequately addressed. Using the CUS paradigm (2 stressors per day for 10(More)
Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is(More)
Methamphetamine (meth) addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that often produces persistent cognitive deficits. These include decreased cognitive flexibility, which may prevent meth addicts from altering their habitual drug abuse and leave them more susceptible to relapse. Multiple factors including low rates of compliance with research study(More)
Pure psychoactive drugs and direct routes of administration are evolutionarily novel features of our environment. They are inherently pathogenic because they bypass adap-tive information processing systems and act directly on ancient brain mechanisms that control emotion and behavior. Drugs that induce positive emotions give a false signal of a fitness(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence indicates that oxytocin, an endogenous peptide well known for its role in social behaviors, childbirth, and lactation, is a promising addiction pharmacotherapy. We employed a within-session behavioral-economic (BE) procedure in rats to examine oxytocin as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (meth) addiction. The BE paradigm was modeled(More)
Adolescents and young adults disproportionately abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'); however, since most MDMA research has concentrated on adults, the effects of MDMA on the developing brain remain obscure. Therefore, we evaluated place conditioning to MDMA (or saline) during late adolescence and assessed anxiety-like behavior and(More)
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