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High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is reaching worldwide proportions. In addition to causing obesity, HFDs also induce a variety of health disorders, which includes cognitive decline. Hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of HFD, and it is suspected that 'primed' neuroinflammatory processes may mediate this(More)
Research investigating how control over stressors affects behavior often utilizes freezing and shuttle escape learning as the behavioral endpoints. These endpoints have been argued to reflect anxious or depressed states, but these descriptions are problematic. The present study sought to determine the impact of stressor controllability and the dorsal raphé(More)
Acute and chronic stress sensitizes or "primes" the neuroinflammatory response to a subsequent pro-inflammatory challenge. While prior evidence shows that glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in stress-induced potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses, it remains unclear whether stress-induced GCs sensitize the response of key CNS immune substrates(More)
Activation of the infralimbic region (IL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) reduces conditioned fear in a variety of situations, and the IL is thought to play an important role in the extinction of conditioned fear. Here we report a series of experiments using contextual fear conditioning in which the IL is activated with the GABAa antagonist(More)
BACKGROUND The opioid peptide beta-endorphin (beta-E) is synthesized and released in response to stressful stimuli as well as acute alcohol administration. The release of beta-E following exposure to an inescapable aversive situation may mediate behaviors that contribute to allostasis of the stress response. The present study examines the effects of beta-E(More)
The presence of behavioral control over a stressor can blunt many of the effects of the stressor. We have recently reported that uncontrollable stress (inescapable electric tailshock, IS) reduces later social exploration of a juvenile whereas controllable stress (escapable shock, ES) does not. Activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is(More)
Digital flexor tendons isolated from 17-18 day embryonic chickens were cultured intact, either on steel mesh grids, or in an apparatus designed to apply a mechanical load to the tissue. Tendons cultured without an applied load continued to synthesize protein and glycosaminoglycans throughout a 7-day period, but DNA synthesis decreased during this time.(More)
Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by cells cultured from nodule or band tissues of patients with Dupuytren's disease was compared with that of skin fibroblasts cultured from uninvolved areas of the palm. No differences were observed in culture which could account either for the abnormal glycosaminoglycan content or the increased cellularity of the diseased(More)
IL-1RA has been used intra-cerebrally to ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses. The present study explored the possibility that the bioactivity of IL-1RA administered intra-cerebrally may be prolonged in the CNS. hIL-1RA was detected in hippocampus from 2h to 14d post-ICM treatment. hIL-1RA ameliorated both the hippocampal cytokine (TNFα and NFκBIα) and(More)
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