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Sepsis is known as the presence of a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) in response to an infection. In the USA alone, 750,000 cases of severe sepsis are diagnosed annually. More than 70% of sepsis-related deaths occur due to organ failure and more than 50% of septic patients demonstrate cardiac dysfunction. Patients with sepsis who develop(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) has been reported to be cardioprotective during stressful conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS Pigs were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to develop metabolic syndrome, then underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor to their left circumflex artery to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Two weeks(More)
INTRODUCTION Calpain is a family of cysteine proteases that has an important role in the initiation, regulation, and execution of cell death. Our recent studies using a hypercholesterolemic swine model demonstrated that in the setting of the metabolic syndrome, calpain inhibition (CI) improved collateral-dependent perfusion and increased expression of(More)
Despite many advances in percutaneous and surgical interventions in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), up to one-third of patients are still either not candidates or receive suboptimal revascularization. Calpains are a class of calcium-activated non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that serve as a proteolytic unit for cellular homeostasis.(More)
PURPOSE Calpain overexpression is implicated in aberrant angiogenesis. We hypothesized that calpain inhibition (MDL28170) would improve collateral perfusion in a swine model with hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. METHODS Yorkshire swine fed a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks underwent surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to(More)
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients' symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an(More)
Calpains are a 15-member class of calcium activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases which are involved in a broad range of cellular function. Calpains are usually localized to the cytosol and within mitochondria. Calpastatin is an endogenous protein that specifically binds to and inhibits calpain. Overactivation of calpain has been implicated in a number of(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging data suggest a link between calpain activation and the enhanced inflammatory response of the cardiovascular system. We hypothesize that calpain activation associates with altered inflammatory protein expression in correlation with the proinflammatory profile of the myocardium. Our pig hypercholesterolemic model with chronic myocardial(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is classified as free air in the mediastinum in the absence of any precipitating cause. It is relatively uncommon, and the clinical significance and risk associated with SPM is not well understood and has not been widely documented in the literature. Our goals were to determine the outcomes of patients who(More)