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We have used X-ray diffraction on the rhombohedral phospholipid phase to reconstruct stalk structures in different pure lipids and lipid mixtures with unprecedented resolution, enabling a quantitative analysis of geometry, as well as curvature and hydration energies. Electron density isosurfaces are used to study shape and curvature properties of the bent(More)
We have developed an X-ray scattering setup which allows to study membrane fusion intermediates or other nonlamellar lipid mesophases by laboratory-scale X-ray sources alone, thus taking advantage of unrestricted beamtime compared to synchrotron sources. We report results of a study of pure lipid bilayers and phospholipid/cholesterol binary mixtures.(More)
In recent years, X-ray imaging of biological cells has emerged as a complementary alternative to fluorescence and electron microscopy. Different techniques were established and successfully applied to macromolecular assemblies and structures in cells. However, while the resolution is reaching the nanometer scale, the dose is increasing. It is essential to(More)
Hair cell stereocilia are crucial for hearing and the sense of balance. They include an array of accurately packed, parallel actin filaments and act as levers, which transform mechanical deformation into neuronal signals. The length of vestibular stereocilia reaches several micrometers, whereas, for individual microfilaments, the diameter and therefore the(More)
We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a(More)
X-ray studies of biological cells in microfluidic devices provide a method to probe cellular structures or structural changes at the molecular level in a precisely controlled environment. However, the device design and the used materials must be compatible with X-ray scattering techniques as well as the cell culture in the devices. For this purpose, we(More)
High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying,(More)
Studying membrane active peptides or protein fragments within the lipid bilayer environment is particularly challenging in the case of synthetically modified, labeled, artificial, or recently discovered native structures. For such samples the localization and orientation of the molecular species or probe within the lipid bilayer environment is the focus of(More)
Encapsulating reacting biological or chemical samples in microfluidic droplets has the great advantage over single-phase flows of providing separate reaction compartments. These compartments can be filled in a combinatoric way and prevent the sample from adsorbing to the channel walls. In recent years, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in combination with(More)
We have studied the acyl-chain conformation in stalk phases of model membranes by x-ray diffraction from oriented samples. As an equilibrium lipid phase induced by dehydration, the stalk or rhombohedral phase exhibits lipidic passages (stalks) between adjacent bilayers, representing a presumed intermediate state in membrane fusion. From the detailed(More)