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The private sector is a dominant actor in the provision of pharmaceuticals, particularly in developing countries. Private provision of drugs has been associated with risks regarding availability, affordability, rational use and drug quality. Ensuring an effective regulatory framework is therefore a major challenge for governments, yet the capacity of(More)
OBJECTIVE Levels of the vascular peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are significantly elevated in obesity. Adipose tissue-derived ET-1 attenuates insulin-mediated antilipolysis in human visceral adipocytes through the activation of the ET receptor B (ET(B)R), thereby linking ET-1 to insulin resistance. Whether ET-1 has direct effects on lipolysis in human(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of government regulation of private pharmacy practice in a low-income country. METHODS The intervention comprised inspections of the pharmacies, information, and distribution of documents to drug sellers and sanctions. It was implemented at two different intensity levels, active and(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors with established roles in cholesterol, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism, although their function in adipocytes is not well characterized. Increased adipose tissue mass in obesity is associated with increased adipocyte lipolysis. Fatty acids (FA) generated by lipolysis can be oxidized by mitochondrial(More)
The Liver X receptor (LXR) is an important regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in humans and mice. We have recently shown that activation of LXR regulates cellular fuel utilization in adipocytes. In contrast, the role of LXR in human adipocyte lipolysis, the major function of human white fat cells, is not clear. In the present study, we(More)
Lipolysis is the catabolic pathway by which triglycerides are hydrolyzed into fatty acids. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have the capacity to hydrolyze in vitro the first ester bond of triglycerides, but their respective contributions to whole cell lipolysis in human adipocytes is unclear. Here, we have investigated(More)
CONTEXT Six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) is a counterregulator of adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. Our hypothesis was that STAMP2 could be involved in human obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to elucidate the role of adipose STAMP2 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance.(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, characterised by impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Liver X receptor (LXR) is a positive regulator of adipocyte glucose transport in murine models and a possible target for diabetes treatment. However, the levels of LXRα are increased in obese(More)
An explosive development of private pharmacies in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R.) has led to 80% of pharmaceuticals being provided by the private sector. In order to achieve the goal of access to good quality health care for all citizens, the Lao government is making an effort to regulate the private pharmaceutical sector using the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Dysregulated expression of metabolic and inflammatory genes is a prominent consequence of obesity causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Finding causative factors is essential to understanding progression of these pathologies and discovering new therapeutic targets. The transcription factor V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma(More)