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Natural-sounding speech synthesis requires close control over the temporal structure of the speech flow. This includes a full predictive scheme for the durational structure and in particuliar the prolongation of final syllables of lexemes as well as for the pausal structure in the utterance. In this chapter, a description of the temporal structure and the(More)
BACKGROUND The supply of primary care physicians may be important determinants of health care costs. We examined the association between primary care physician supply and geographic location with respect to variation in Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance (Part B) reimbursement. METHODS We performed an analysis of data from all US metropolitan(More)
This paper proposes a distinction between existing multilingual synthesis systems and mixed-lingual or polyglot synthesis systems. The latter should be capable of synthesising with the same voice utterances which contain foreign language words or word groups. As a first step towards polyglot synthetic speech, the design and realisation of a 4-lingual(More)
This paper reports on a cooperative international evaluation of grapheme-to-phoneme (GP) conversion for text-to-speech synthesis in French. Test methodology and test corpora are described. The results for eight systems are provided and analysed in some detail. The contribution of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, it gives an accurate picture of the(More)
Models of speech timing are of both fundamental and applied interest. At the fundamental level, the prediction of time periods occupied by syllables and segments is required for general models of speech prosody and segmental structure. At the applied level, complete models of timing are an essential component of any speech synthesis system. Previous(More)
Using the definitions of "medically underserved areas" developed by the California Health Manpower Policy Commission and data on physician location derived from a survey of California physicians applying for licensure or relicensure between 1984 and 1986, we examined the extent to which different kinds of primary care physicians located in underserved(More)