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The cyclophilins are widely expressed enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of the cis and trans peptide bonds of prolines. The immunosuppressive natural products cyclosporine A and sanglifehrin A inhibit the enzymatic activity of the cyclophilins. Chemical modification of both the cyclosporine and sanglifehrin scaffolds has produced many analogues that(More)
Host factor pathways are known to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication in human liver cells. To search for novel host factor proteins required for HCV replication, we screened a subgenomic genotype 1b replicon cell line (Luc-1b) with a kinome and druggable collection of 20,779 siRNAs. We identified and validated several enzymes(More)
Messenger-RNA-directed protein synthesis is accomplished by the ribosome. In eubacteria, this complex process is initiated by a specialized transfer RNA charged with formylmethionine (tRNA(fMet)). The amino-terminal formylated methionine of all bacterial nascent polypeptides blocks the reactive amino group to prevent unfavourable side-reactions and to(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is usually benign in healthy individuals but can cause life-threatening disease in those with compromised immune systems. Approved drugs available to treat HCMV disease, including ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet, have significant toxicities that limit their use in certain patient populations. LJP538 and LJP539(More)
The current standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, pegylated alpha interferon in combination with ribavirin, has a limited response rate and adverse side effects. Drugs targeting viral proteins are in clinical development, but they suffer from the development of high viral resistance. The inhibition of cellular proteins that are essential(More)
Three cyclophilin inhibitors (DEBIO-025, SCY635, and NIM811) are currently in clinical trials for hepatitis C therapy. The mechanism of action of these, however, is not completely understood. There are at least 16 cyclophilins expressed in human cells which are involved in a diverse set of cellular processes. Large-scale siRNA experiments, chemoproteomic(More)
Liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry represents a sensitive, hyphenated MS- and MS/MS-technique with a broad range of applications in all areas ofproteome analysis. Whereas a number of interface types have been developed for coupling MALDI MS and liquid chromatography, in this chapter selected on-line and(More)
Previous genetic analysis of Haemophilus influenzae revealed two mechanisms associated with decreased susceptibility to the novel peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM415: AcrAB-TolC-mediated efflux and Fmt bypass, resulting from mutations in the pump repressor gene acrR and in the fmt gene, respectively. We have isolated an additional mutant, CDS23 (LBM415(More)
Radiologic maxillary sinusitis is an important risk factor for development of bronchopneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Nitric oxide produced within the paranasal sinuses is considered to provide an antibacterial environment and to modulate mucociliary clearance function. We hypothesized that a reduced formation of nitric oxide might contribute(More)
Host cyclophilin (cyp) inhibitors, such as NIM811, efficiently inhibit replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and have shown significant promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of chronic HCV. It is therefore important to fully understand the mechanism of action of these therapeutic agents. Data obtained from comprehensive systems biology(More)