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Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct(More)
In the heart, the energy supplied by mitochondria to myofibrils is continuously and finely tuned to the contraction requirement over a wide range of cardiac loads. This process is mediated both by the creatine kinase (CK) shuttle and by direct ATP transfer. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of energy transfer pathways at different(More)
The susceptibility of immature rat brain to neurotoxicity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has provided a widely used paradigm to study excitotoxicity relevant to acute neurodegenerative diseases such as cerebral ischemia. In this study, excitotoxicity was induced via injection of ouabain (1 mM/0.5 microL), a Na+/K+ -ATPase-inhibitor, into neonatal rat brain(More)
Dystrophin is a cytoskeletal membrane-bound protein expressed in both muscle and brain. Brain dystrophin is thought to be involved in the stabilization of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A)-receptor (GABA(A)-R)clusters in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) at inhibitory synapses onto pyramidal cells, and its loss has been linked to cognitive impairments in(More)
The cerebral metabolic changes elicited by kainate-induced seizures in the rat were investigated by in vivo combined NMR spectroscopy of 31P and 1H. Systemic injection of kainate induced no significant changes in cerebral ATP or PCr levels during up to 90 min of continuous, generalised seizures, and the cerebral 31P spectra showed only a transient mild(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to evaluate the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both experimental and clinical studies. Improved assessment of experimental TBI using the same methods as those used in clinical investigations would help to translate laboratory research into clinical advances. Here our goal was to characterize(More)
It is generally believed that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes measured by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in brain pathologies are related to alterations in the water compartments. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of compartmentalization in DWI via biexponential analysis of the signal decay due to diffusion. DWI experiments(More)
The suitability of two-dimensional (2D) proton spectroscopy for monitoring, in vivo, the changes in levels of brain metabolites induced by cerebral ischemia was investigated in an experimental model of 30-min reversible ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat. The resulting data were compared with those obtained by one-dimensional (1D) proton(More)
Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Our purpose was to study magnetic resonance (MR) imaging changes in P7 rat brains submitted to permanent or reversible ischemia. Ischemia was induced by permanent electro-cauterization of the middle cerebral artery combined with a permanent or a transient (50 min) common(More)
Dormant seeds of a California chaparral annual were induced to germinate by smoke or vapors emitted from smoke-treated sand or paper. Nitrogen oxides induced 100 percent germination in a manner similar to smoke. Smoke-treated water samples inducing germination were comparable in acidity and concentration of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen dioxide (NO(More)