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A mast cell infiltration of the bronchial smooth muscle layer has been reported in patients sensitized to common allergens. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a chemotactic and survival factor for mast cells. SCF is expressed as a soluble (sSCF) and a membrane-bound (mSCF) form, after alternative splicing of the exon encoding the proteolytic cleavage site. SCF(More)
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) was studied in ten human foetuses, 12 to 36 weeks old. At 12 to 23 weeks, it was lined by a smooth pseudostratified epithelium, with neurone-specific enolase (NSE) positive cells looking like olfactory receptors. Clusters of NSE-positive cells were seen in relation with the posterosuperior end of the organ and along nerve(More)
BACKGROUND It has become evident that host cells react to recombinant protein production with a variety of metabolic and intrinsic stresses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Additionally, environmental conditions such as growth temperature may have a strong impact on cell physiology and specific productivity. However, there is little(More)
BACKGROUND Inducible high-level expression is favoured for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris. Therefore, novel regulated promoters are desired, ideally repressing heterologous gene expression during initial growth and enabling it in the production phase. In a typical large scale fed-batch culture repression is desired during the batch phase(More)
BACKGROUND Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means.(More)
In 12-19 weeks old human fetuses, LHRH-immunoreactive (LHRH-Ir) cells were detected in the nerve fascicles arising from the vomeronasal organ (VNO), from their origin to their end point at the medial aspect of the olfactory bulb (vomeronasal and/or terminal nerves). In one 22-weeks-old fetus, LHRH-Ir cells were present only in the upper part of the nasal(More)
The production of recombinant proteins is frequently enhanced at the levels of transcription, codon usage, protein folding and secretion. Overproduction of heterologous proteins, however, also directly affects the primary metabolism of the producing cells. By incorporation of the production of a heterologous protein into a genome scale metabolic model of(More)
Different species of microorganisms including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria have been used in the past 25 years for the controlled production of foreign proteins of scientific, pharmacological or industrial interest. A major obstacle for protein production processes and a limit to overall success has been the abundance of misfolded polypeptides,(More)
BACKGROUND Pichia pastoris is widely used as a production platform for heterologous proteins and model organism for organelle proliferation. Without a published genome sequence available, strain and process development relied mainly on analogies to other, well studied yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS To investigate specific features of growth(More)
BACKGROUND DNA Microarrays are regarded as a valuable tool for basic and applied research in microbiology. However, for many industrially important microorganisms the lack of commercially available microarrays still hampers physiological research. Exemplarily, our understanding of protein folding and secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris is presently(More)