Brigitta Brandner

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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms and cognitive impairment in humans. The NMDA receptor has been strongly implicated in memory, but research to date on the effects of NMDA antagonists has examined only some aspects of human memory functions. This study used a double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND Ketamine is used acutely as a model of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that chronic ketamine may also mimic aspects of this disorder, in particular impaired cognitive function. As semantic processing deficits are considered central to cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, this study aimed to characterize semantic impairments following both(More)
Ketamine has previously been shown to induce delusion-like or referential beliefs, both acutely in healthy volunteers and naturalistically among nonintoxicated users of the drug. Delusions are theoretically underpinned by increased superstitious conditioning or the erroneous reinforcement of random events. Using a novel and objectively measured(More)
Anandamide is a ligand of the endocannabinoid system. Animals show a depletion following repeated Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration but the effect of cannabis use on central nervous system levels of endocannabinoids has not been previously examined in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide,(More)
BACKGROUND A reduction in reward responsivity and an increase in temporal discounting of rewards are both evident in smokers during acute abstinence compared to satiation. However, it is not yet known whether these processes can be modulated pharmacologically in smokers, other than with nicotine or tobacco. METHODS A double-blind placebo controlled(More)
Acute administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers; furthermore, a window on ketamine's chronic effects is provided by regular recreational users. The current study utilized both acute ketamine administration in healthy volunteers and chronic ketamine abusers to investigate(More)
Although several psychotropic drugs can acutely induce an anterograde impairment of memory which impedes new learning, they do not produce retrograde impairments, reducing memory for information learned prior to the drug being administered. However, both anterograde and retrograde memory impairments have been reported following an acute dose of morphine in(More)
At present, the opioids, anti-epileptic, membrane stabilising and anti-depressant drugs are the mainstay of treatment for alleviating neuropathic pain. This article summarises data on some new medications of these classes and also other groups of medications in development. Recent data on the use of combination medications and its implications will also be(More)
The role of ketamine anesthesia in the prehospital, emergency department and operating theater settings is not well defined. A nonsystematic review of ketamine was performed by authors from Australia, Europe, and North America. Results were discussed among authors and the final manuscript accepted. Ketamine is a useful agent for induction of anesthesia,(More)
Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to 'jump to conclusions' (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy(More)