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IL-10 is a potent immunomodulatory cytokine that affects innate and acquired immune responses. The immunological consequences of IL-10 production during pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are currently unknown, although IL-10 has been implicated in reactivation TB in humans and with TB disease in mice. Using Mycobacterium tuberculosis-susceptible CBA/J mice, we(More)
Current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are not able to distinguish active disease from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, nor are they able to quantify the risk of a latently infected person progressing to active TB. There is interest, however, in adapting antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release assays (IGRAs) to predict(More)
Numerous immunological defects begin to emerge as an individual ages, the consequence of which is heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases. Despite this decline in immune function, old mice display an early transient resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lung, which is dependent on CD8 T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)(More)
In this study vaccines prepared from culture filtrate proteins (CFP) of Mycobacterium bovis and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were tested in cattle for their capacity to stimulate immune responses and to protect against an intratracheal challenge with virulent M. bovis. Nine groups of cattle were vaccinated with combinations of different doses of CFP and bovine IL-2(More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), the current vaccine against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, offers a variable, protective efficacy in man. It has been suggested that exposure to environmental mycobacteria can interfere with the generation of BCG-specific immunity. We hypothesized that exposure to environmental mycobacteria(More)
Antigen presentation by class II MHC molecules in the uninfected host is a multi-step process involving key functions provided by specific cathepsins (Cat) and the peptide editor DM. Herein, we examined the requirement for each of these components in mice to control a low-dose aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Mice lacking Cat B, -L,(More)
The elderly are particularly susceptible to infectious diseases such as influenza, bacterial pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Current vaccines are only partially protective in old age, which makes the elderly a critical target group for the development of new vaccine strategies. The recognition of pathogens via toll like receptors (TLR) and the subsequent(More)
Control of M.tb, the causative agent of TB, requires immune cell recruitment to form lung granulomas. The chemokines and chemokine receptors that promote cell migration for granuloma formation, however, are not defined completely. As immunity to M.tb manifests slowly in the lungs, a better understanding of specific roles for chemokines, in particular those(More)
Changes within the immune system during aging lead to an elderly population that is both highly susceptible to infectious diseases and unresponsive to typical vaccine protocols. Using the murine model of tuberculosis, we have identified key differences in the generation of T-helper 1 cell immunity between old and young mice, and this information may be(More)
The lungs of naïve 18-month-old mice contain an abundant resident population of CD8 T cells that express typical markers of memory, express elevated levels of Th1 cytokine receptors on their surface, and are capable of non-specific IFN-gamma production in response to a Th1 cytokine cocktail. In this study we characterize this population of CD8 T cells in(More)