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Through the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study, the levels of 11 nutritional elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iodine) in the diets of eight age-sex groups were determined for the 4 years between 1982 and 1986. The 234 Total Diet Study foods, which are representative of the(More)
This review focuses on complementary feeding (CF) in westernized settings where primary health concerns are risk of obesity and micronutrient inadequacy. The current evidence is reviewed for: (1) when CF should be introduced, (2) what foods (nutrients and food types) should be prioritized and avoided, and (3) how the infant should be fed. Special attention(More)
Daily intakes of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, copper, and manganese for eight age-sex groups are presented for 1982 to 1989. Compared with the intakes recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, sodium intakes (which did not include discretionary salt) exceeded the estimated minimum requirement;(More)
The 234 foods of the FDA's Total Diet Study were collected four times per year form mid-1982 to mid-1984 and analyzed for 11 essential minerals. Daily intakes of the minerals were estimated for eight age-sex groups of the U.S. population. Levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were low (less than 80% of the RDA or below the low end(More)
Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The(More)
Results from the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study on the nutrient element content of fluid whole cow's milk are presented and compared with previously published values. Whole milk was collected and analyzed yearly from 1975 through 1985. Yearly and overall means were similar for all elements except iron and iodine. The iron content of milk(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status may affect fetal bone development. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine relations between maternal calcium intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status, and fetal bone growth across pregnancy. DESIGN This was a prospective longitudinal design. Maternal 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, and(More)
The purpose of the study was to identify determinants of placental vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and placental calcium (Ca) transfer among pregnant adolescents. Placental tissue was obtained in 94 adolescents (≤18 yr) at term. In 12 of these teens, stable Ca isotopes were given intravenously ((42)Ca) and orally ((44)Ca) early in labor. Placental VDR(More)
BACKGROUND Increased maternal body mass index (BMI) is a robust risk factor for later pediatric obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that human milk (HM) may attenuate the transfer of obesity from mother to offspring, potentially through its effects on early development of the infant microbiome. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to identify early(More)
Few large studies have assessed changes in calcitropic hormones and maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status across pregnancy, and how this may impact maternal bone turnover and neonatal hormone status. We aimed to identify determinants of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitriol across pregnancy in a longitudinal study of 168 pregnant(More)