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Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive(More)
The neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G are multifunctional proteases involved in pathogen destruction and the modulation of inflammatory processes. A fraction of secreted NSPs remains bound to the external plasma membrane, where they remain enzymatically active. This protocol describes the spectrofluorometric(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils form a primary line of defense against bacterial infections using complementary oxidative and non-oxidative pathways to destroy phagocytized pathogens. The three serine proteases elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G, are major components of the neutrophil primary granules that participate in the non-oxidative pathway of(More)
The protease-antiprotease imbalance that is characteristic of most inflammatory lung disorders depends on the spatial-temporal regulation of active inhibitor and protease concentrations in lung secretions. We have studied the competition between the three main serine proteases from human neutrophil primary granules in their binding to alpha1-Pi, the main(More)
The uncontrolled proteolytic activity in lung secretions during lung inflammatory diseases might be due to the resistance of membrane-bound proteases to inhibition. We have used a new fluorogenic neutrophil elastase substrate to measure the activity of free and membrane-bound human neutrophil elastase (HNE) in the presence of alpha1-protease inhibitor(More)
Proteinase 3 (PR3), the target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies, which are found in patients with Wegener granulomatosis, is a neutrophil serine protease localized within cytoplasmic granules. Recently, the human neutrophil antigen NB1 was identified as a specific neutrophil cell surface receptor of PR3. We hypothesized that the unique(More)
Mutations in ELA2 encoding the neutrophil granule protease, neutrophil elastase (NE), are the major cause of the 2 main forms of hereditary neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Genetic evaluation of other forms of neutropenia in humans and model organisms has helped to illuminate the role of NE. A canine form of cyclic(More)
"Neutropenia" refers to deficient numbers of neutrophils, the most abundant type of white blood cell. Two main forms of inherited neutropenia are cyclic neutropenia, in which neutrophil counts oscillate with a 21-day frequency, and severe congenital neutropenia, in which static neutropenia may evolve at times into leukemia. Mutations of ELA2, encoding the(More)
Neutrophils are among the first cells implicated in acute inflammation. Leaving the blood circulation, they quickly migrate through the interstitial space of tissues and liberate oxidants and other antimicrobial proteins together with serine proteinases. Neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, proteinase 3 (PR3), and neutrophil serine protease 4 are four(More)
We have exploited differences in the structures of S2' subsites of proteinase 3 (Pr3) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) to prepare new fluorogenic substrates specific for each of these proteases. The positively charged residue at position 143 in Pr3 prevents it from accommodating an arginyl residue at S2' and improves the binding of P2'(More)