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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1α. Once activated, IRE1α recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the(More)
inv encodes invasin, which is the primary invasion factor of Yersinia enterocolitica. inv expression in vitro is regulated in response to temperature, pH, and growth phase. In vitro, inv is maximally expressed at 26 degrees C and repressed at 37 degrees C at neutral pH but, when the pH of the media is adjusted to 5.5, levels of inv expression at 37 degrees(More)
Xylem-dwelling pathogens become systemic, suggesting that microorganisms move efficiently in the xylem. To better understand xylem pathways and how bacteria move within the xylem, vessel connectivity between stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and Muscadinia rotundifolia cv. Cowart was studied. Three methods were used: (1) the light-producing(More)
Cellular immune mechanisms resulting in gamma interferon production are critical for protection against visceral leishmaniasis. Antigens stimulating T-cell responses are likely present in the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite, since this is the form found in a mammalian host. To identify T-cell antigens of Leishmania chagasi, the parasite(More)
Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella(More)
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