Brian Zimmerman

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Commercial reentrant ionization chambers ('dose calibrators') have become the de facto standard instrument for making radioactivity measurements in the radiopharmaceutical industry. Accurate activity measurements, however, depend on the application of the correct calibration factor (dial setting) for the radionuclide in the exact measurement geometry for(More)
The CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting, initially developed for the activity standardization of pure-beta radionuclides, have been extended to the standardization of electron capture and beta-gamma radionuclides. Both methods require the calculation of the energy spectrum absorbed by the liquid scintillator. For radionuclides(More)
The positron emitter 18F continues to be one of the most important imaging radionuclides in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Assays of radiopharmaceuticals containing this nuclide are often performed in the clinic using commercial reentrant ionization chambers, or "dose calibrators". Meaningful quantitative clinical studies require accurate knowledge of the(More)
The effect of measurement geometry on the determination of the activity of solutions containing 125I for use in brachytherapy applications has been investigated for 5 mL plastic syringes and 2 mL conical glass dose vials as a function of filling mass. New dial settings for the syringes over a filling mass range of 1 to 3 g have been determined to be 497+/-8(More)
UNLABELLED We have developed a methodology for calibrating (68)Ge radioactivity content in a commercially available calibration source for activity calibrators in a way that is traceable to the national standard. Additionally, the source was cross-calibrated for equivalent (18)F content by direct comparison with the national standard for (18)F in the same(More)
A new primary standardization of (18)F by NIST is reported. The standard is based on live-timed beta-gamma anticoincidence counting with confirmatory measurements by three other methods: (i) liquid scintillation (LS) counting using CIEMAT/NIST (3)H efficiency tracing; (ii) triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) counting; and (iii) NaI integral counting(More)
Solutions containing the potential bone pain palliation radionuclide 117mSn, in chloride form and as a diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) complex, have been standardized by 4 pi beta liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry and 4 pi gamma-ray spectrometry. Massic activities of the stock solutions were measured in order to determine dose calibrator settings(More)
A new guidance document for the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in developing countries, to provide consistent, safe(More)
A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of (131)I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of(More)
UNLABELLED Quantitative imaging biomarkers could speed the development of new treatments for unmet medical needs and improve routine clinical care. However, it is not clear how the various regulatory and nonregulatory (eg, reimbursement) processes (often referred to as pathways) relate, nor is it clear which data need to be collected to support these(More)