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Three experimental environments traditionally support network and distributed systems research: network emulators, network simulators, and live networks. The continued use of multiple approaches highlights both the value and inadequacy of each. Netbed, a descendant of Emulab, provides an experimentation facility that integrates these approaches, allowing(More)
The diverse requirements of network and distributed systems research are not well met by any single experimental environment. Competing approaches remain popular because each offers different levels of ease of use, control, and realism. These include packet-level discrete event simulation, live network experimentation, and emulation, which subjects real(More)
The success of <i>ns</i> highlights the importance of an infrastructure that enables efficient experimentation. Similarly, Netbed's automatic configuration and control of emulated and live network environments minimizes the effort spent configuring and running experiments. Learning from the evolution of these systems, in this paper we argue that a live(More)
The single stage LED Driver can achieve relatively high efficiency, however the low frequency ripple current is too significant if high power factor has been achieved. With two stages AC-DC LED Driver structure, we can achieve high power factor and tight current regulation at the same time. However, the drawback of the two stage structure is relatively low(More)
Today there exist three environments in which to perform experimental network and distributed systems research: network emulators, simulators, and live networks. The continued use of multiple approaches highlights both the importance and inadequacies of each. Emulab is an experimentation facility that seamlessly integrates these approaches. Emulab’s primary(More)
Conventional single-stage light-emitting diode (LED) drivers with a high power factor (PF) contain a significant LED current ripple at twice the ac line frequency, and would require large energy storage capacitors to limit the effect on LED light. Conventional designs and novel control techniques aim to power LED loads with a dc voltage to ensure a limited(More)
Locked volar plating is the most common surgical procedure to address distal radius fractures. The extended flexor carpi radialis (FCR) approach continues to be an excellent method for visualizing distal radius fractures and applying a volar plate. (See Video 1, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which discusses distal radial fracture advancements and possible(More)