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How dopamine (DA) neuronal subtypes are specified remains unknown. In this study we show a robust generation of functional DA neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through a specific sequence of application of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and sonic hedgehog (SHH). Treatment of hESC-derived Sox1+ neuroepithelial cells with FGF8 and SHH(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the individual and combined effects of estrogen/progestin therapy versus lovastatin on lipids and flow-mediated vasodilation in postmenopausal women with heart disease. BACKGROUND Little information is available regarding the relative benefits of estrogen replacement therapy versus reductase inhibitors and the potential(More)
Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important determinant in the outcome of therapy. Molecular details of the apoptosis pathway, however, are still poorly defined. The recently discovered WAF1/CIP1 gene is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and a mediator of tumor-suppressor p53-dependent apoptosis by DNA damage. In addition, WAF1/CIP1(More)
Although the molecular events regulating the pathogenesis of malignant astrocytomas remains unclear, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be a key factor. The inactivation of p53 by mutation or deletion, however, is not the only obligatory step in astrocytoma genesis. The MDM2 protein has been shown to bind to and downmodulate p53 function, and to(More)
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