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Evidence is compiled suggesting a slowdown in mean microevolutionary rate for turtle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Within each of six species or species complexes of Testudines, representing six genera and three taxonomic families, sequence divergence estimates derived from restriction assays are consistently lower than expectations based on either (a) the(More)
Pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge) are widespread and species-rich in the Indo-Pacific, but only three species are recognized in the Atlantic: Centropyge resplendens on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Centropyge argi in the Caribbean, and Centropyge aurantonotus in Brazil and the southern Caribbean. Atlantic species are distinguished only by color patterns and(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences were analysed to resolve the phylogeography and population genetic structure of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Analysis of sequence variation over 487 base pairs of the control (D-loop) region identified 18 haplotypes among 147 individuals from nine nesting populations. Pairwise(More)
The seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. Here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution(More)
The high biodiversity in tropical seas provides a long-standing challenge to allopatric speciation models. Physical barriers are few in the ocean and larval dispersal is often extensive, a combination that should reduce opportunities for speciation. Yet coral reefs are among the most species-rich habitats in the world, indicating evolutionary processes(More)
Large marine fishes typically have little population genetic structure. The exceptions are associated with sedentary behaviour, disjunct distributions, or reproductive philopatry. Scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) incorporate the contrasting traits of oceanic habitat (usually associated with high dispersal) and possible fidelity to nursery(More)
To address aspects of the evolution and natural history of green turtles, we assayed mitochondrial (mt) DNA genotypes from 226 specimens representing 15 major rookeries around the world. Phylogenetic analyses of these data revealed (1) a comparatively low level of mtDNA variability and a slow mtDNA evolutionary rate (relative to estimates for many other(More)
Although many reef fishes of the tropical Atlantic are widely distributed, there are large discontinuities that may strongly influence phylogeographical patterns. The freshwater outflow of the Amazon basin is recognized as a major barrier that produces a break between Brazilian and Caribbean faunas. The vast oceanic distances between Brazil and the(More)
Restriction-site analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) reveal substantial phylogeographic structure among major nesting populations in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans and the Mediterranean sea. Based on 176 samples from eight nesting populations, most breeding colonies were distinguished from other(More)
Complex population structure can result from either sex-biased gene flow or population overlap during migrations. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) have both traits, providing an instructive case history for wildlife management. Based on surveys of maternally inherited mtDNA, pelagic post-hatchlings show no population structure across the northern(More)