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We have used 19.9 million papers over 5 decades and 2.1 million patents to demonstrate that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in the production of knowledge. Research is increasingly done in teams across nearly all fields. Teams typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals do, and this advantage has been increasing over time.(More)
Agents in creative enterprises are embedded in networks that inspire, support, and evaluate their work. Here, we investigate how the mechanisms by which creative teams self-assemble determine the structure of these collaboration networks. We propose a model for the self-assembly of creative teams that has its basis in three parameters: team size, the(More)
Novelty is an essential feature of creative ideas, yet the building blocks of new ideas are often embodied in existing knowledge. From this perspective, balancing atypical knowledge with conventional knowledge may be critical to the link between innovativeness and impact. Our analysis of 17.9 million papers spanning all scientific fields suggests that(More)
I n this introductory note, we describe the motivation for this special issue on complex systems. We begin by noting the potential management opportunities offered by recent advances in complexity science. After defining the nature of complex systems and the many ways they are expressed in organizations and markets, we briefly describe the main tools and(More)
• We appreciate the generous support of the National Science Foundation (IOC Award #0323176), the Stanford Technology Ventures Program, and the MIT Sloan School of Management. We also thank multiple individuals for their helpful comments, including Using computational and mathematical modeling, this study explores the tension between too little and too much(More)
A s a complement to the literature on learning in firms, we investigate learning in markets , a nascent area of study that focuses on how learning occurs between, rather than within, firms. The core idea behind our framework is that networks shape knowledge transfer and learning processes by creating channels for knowledge trade and reducing the risk of(More)
In theoretical ecology, simple stochastic models that satisfy two basic conditions about the distribution of niche values and feeding ranges have proved successful in reproducing the overall structural properties of real food webs, using species richness and connectance as the only input parameters. Recently, more detailed models have incorporated higher(More)
Successful animal systems often manage risk through synchronous behavior that spontaneously arises without leadership. In critical human systems facing risk, such as financial markets or military operations, our understanding of the benefits associated with synchronicity is nascent but promising. Building on previous work illuminating commonalities between(More)
Tracking the volume of keywords in Internet searches, message boards, or Tweets has provided an alternative for following or predicting associations between popular interest or disease incidences. Here, we extend that research by examining the role of e-communications among day traders and their collective understanding of the market. Our study introduces a(More)
and Arts and Humanities from 1975-2005 where at least one of the participating institutions is located in the USA. Although ISI provides paper records starting from the early 1900's, only entries from 1975 are fully annotated with auxiliary information about the authors and their full addresses. Humanities. To get an insight into the patterns of(More)