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In this letter, we propose a so-called probabilistic non-local means (PNLM) method for image denoising. Our main contributions are: 1) we point out defects of the weight function used in the classic NLM; 2) we successfully derive all theoretical statistics of patch-wise differences for Gaussian noise; and 3) we employ this prior information and formulate(More)
Patch-based methods have attracted significant attention in recent years within the field of image processing for a variety of problems including denoising, inpainting, and super-resolution interpolation. Despite their prevalence for processing 2-D signals, they have received little attention in the 1-D signal processing literature. In this letter, we(More)
INTRODUCTION WHO case management algorithm for paediatric pneumonia relies solely on symptoms of shortness of breath or cough and tachypnoea for treatment and has poor diagnostic specificity, tends to increase antibiotic resistance. Alternatives, including oxygen saturation measurement, chest ultrasound and chest auscultation, exist but with potential(More)
BACKGROUND Skin color changes and mottling are frequently described signs of hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Based on this, we developed a noninvasive, noncontact hyperspectral imaging system (HSI), which quantifies and depicts the surface tissue saturation of oxygen (SHSIO2) for each pixel in a region of interest (ROI). Our purpose was to assess HSI in a porcine(More)
—Non-Local Means (NLM) and its variants have proven to be effective and robust in many image denoising tasks. In this letter, we study approaches to selecting center pixel weights (CPW) in NLM. Our key contributions are: 1) we give a novel formulation of the CPW problem from a statistical shrinkage perspective; 2) we construct the James-Stein shrinkage(More)
Background Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough, cough frequency risk factors, and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and(More)
In regions of the world where tuberculosis (TB) poses the greatest disease burden, the lack of access to skilled laboratories is a significant problem. A lab-free method for assessing patient recovery during treatment would be of great benefit, particularly for identifying patients who may have drug-resistant tuberculosis. We hypothesize that cough analysis(More)
Standard bioelectric field models assume that the tissue is purely resistive and frequency independent, and that capacitance, induction, and propagation effects can be neglected. However, real tissue properties are frequency dependent, and tissue capacitance can be important for problems involving short stimulation pulses. A straightforward interpolation(More)
In this letter, we investigate the shrinkage problem for the non-local means (NLM) image denoising. In particular, we derive the closed-form of the optimal blockwise shrinkage for NLM that minimizes the Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE). We also propose a constant complexity algorithm allowing fast blockwise shrinkage. Simulation results show that the(More)
BACKGROUND A laboratory-free test for assessing recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) would be extremely beneficial in regions of the world where laboratory facilities are lacking. Our hypothesis is that analysis of cough sound recordings may provide such a test. In the current paper, we present validation of a cough analysis tool. (More)