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Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) directed at Earth from within a few kpc may have damaged the biosphere, primarily though changes in atmospheric chemistry which admit greatly increased Solar UV. However, GRBs are highly variable in spectrum and duration. Recent observations indicate that short (~0.1 s) burst GRBs, which have harder spectra, may be sufficiently(More)
Recovery of ribosomal small subunit genes by assembly of short read community DNA sequence data generally fails, making taxonomic characterization difficult. Here, we solve this problem with a novel iterative method, based on the expectation maximization algorithm, that reconstructs full-length small subunit gene sequences and provides estimates of relative(More)
The physiology and genetics underlying juvenility is poorly understood. Here, we exploit Arabidopsis as a system to understand the mechanisms that regulate floral incompetence during juvenility. Using an experimental assay that allows the length of juvenility to be estimated and mutants impaired in different pathways, we show that multiple inputs influence(More)
BD1-5, OP11, and OD1 bacteria have been widely detected in anaerobic environments, but their metabolisms remain unclear owing to lack of cultivated representatives and minimal genomic sampling. We uncovered metabolic characteristics for members of these phyla, and a new lineage, PER, via cultivation-independent recovery of 49 partial to near-complete(More)
BACKGROUND Sediments are massive reservoirs of carbon compounds and host a large fraction of microbial life. Microorganisms within terrestrial aquifer sediments control buried organic carbon turnover, degrade organic contaminants, and impact drinking water quality. Recent 16S rRNA gene profiling indicates that members of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi are(More)
BACKGROUND Archaea represent a significant fraction of Earth's biodiversity, yet they remain much less well understood than Bacteria. Gene surveys, a few metagenomic studies, and some single-cell sequencing projects have revealed numerous little-studied archaeal phyla. Certain lineages appear to branch deeply and may be part of a major phylum radiation. The(More)
The evidence that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, and its paralog TWIN SISTER OF FT, act as the long-distance floral stimulus, or at least that they are part of it in diverse plant species, has attracted much attention in recent years. Studies to understand the physiological and molecular apparatuses that integrate spatial and temporal signals to regulate(More)
Senescence of floral organs is broadly divided into two groups: those that exhibit sensitivity to exogenous ethylene and those that do not. Endogenous ethylene production from the former group is via a well-characterized biochemical pathway and is either due to developmental or pollination-induced senescence. Many flowers from the order Liliales are(More)
Abstrac.t-Based on the intensity and rates of various kinds of intense ionizing radiation events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts, it is likely that the Earth has been subjected to one or more events of potential mass extinction level intensity during the Phanerozoic. These induce changes in atmospheric chemistry so that the level of Solar(More)
It has been suggested that galactic shock asymmetry induced by our galaxy's infall toward the Virgo Cluster may be a source of periodicity in cosmic ray exposure as the solar system oscillates perpendicular to the galactic plane, thereby inducing an observed terrestrial periodicity in biodiversity. There are a number of plausible mechanisms by which cosmic(More)