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CONTEXT Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by pathological results at autopsy of amyloid plaques and tau-associated neurofibrillary tangles, but the clinical diagnosis of AD is determined on the basis of medical history, cognitive symptoms, and exclusionary criteria. The search for antemortem biomarkers is intense and has focused on cerebrospinal fluid(More)
This study set out to develop a land use regression model at sub-neighborhood scale (0.01-1 km) for Portland, Oregon using passive measurements of NO(2) at 77 locations. Variables used to develop the model included road and railroad density, traffic volume, and land use with buffers of 50 to 750 m surrounding each measurement site. An initial regression(More)
An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs(More)
Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An idealized framework based on steadiness, axisymmetry, and slantwise neutrality is developed to assess how ventilation affects tropical(More)
The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation induces cooling of the upper-level warm core, a shift in the secondary circulation radially outward, and a decrease in the simulated(More)
The ventilation index serves as a theoretically based metric to assess possible changes in the statistics of tropical cyclones to combined changes in vertical wind shear, midlevel entropy deficit, and potential intensity in climate models. Model output from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 models is used to calculate the ventilation index. The(More)
This study presents a novel miniaturized dual-band coupled-line impedance transformer. This dual-band matching technique uses the characteristics of coupled-line and dual-band stubs to realize matching arbitrary complex impedance to arbitrary complex impedance at two arbitrary uncorrelated frequencies. Especially, it satisfies the demand of dual-band(More)
A diagnostic framework to investigate the role of processes around and during tropical cyclogenesis is presented. The key framework metric is the ratio of bulk differences of moist entropy over differences of angular momentum between an inner and outer region of a tropical disturbance or cyclone. This ratio is hypothesized to decrease and become negative as(More)
The sensitivity of tropical cyclone spinup time to the initial entropy deficit of the troposphere is examined in an axisymmetric hurricane model. Larger initial entropy deficits correspond to less moisture above the initial lifting condensation level of a subcloud-layer parcel. The spinup time is quantified in terms of thresholds of integrated horizontal(More)