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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T lymphocyte-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, demyelination, and paralysis. We previously demonstrated a role for chemokines in acute and relapsing EAE pathogenesis. Presently, we investigated the role of CC chemokine receptor 2(More)
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory molecule expressed on activated T cells; however, the biological context in which PD-1 controls T cell tolerance remains unclear. Using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we show here that unlike naive or activated islet antigen-specific T cells, tolerized islet antigen-specific T cells moved freely and did not(More)
A new regulatory T (T reg) cell-specific, FoxP3-GFP-hCre bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse was crossed to a conditional Dicer knockout (KO) mouse strain to analyze the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development and function of T reg cells. Although thymic T reg cells developed normally in this setting, the cells showed evidence of altered(More)
The in vivo mechanism of regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) function in controlling autoimmunity remains controversial. Here we have used two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to analyze lymph node priming of diabetogenic T cells and to delineate the mechanisms of T(reg) cell control of autoimmunity in vivo. Islet antigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(-) T helper cells(More)
Th17 cells promote a variety of autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. TGF-β is required for conversion of naive T cells to Th17 cells, but the mechanisms regulating this process are unknown. Integrin αvβ8 on DCs can activate TGF-β, and this process contributes to the development(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a surface receptor critical for the regulation of T cell function during immunity and tolerance. PD-1 interactions with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 inhibit T cell effector functions in an antigen-specific manner. This paper examines the role of PD-1 in limiting autoreactivity and establishing self-tolerance and discusses the(More)
The past decade has seen a significant increase in the number of potentially tolerogenic therapies for treatment of new-onset diabetes. However, most treatments are antigen nonspecific, and the mechanism for the maintenance of long-term tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we developed an antigen-specific therapy, insulin-coupled antigen-presenting(More)
Classically, the CD28/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and B7 families of cell surface molecules regulate complex signaling pathways that profoundly affect T-cell responses. The recent identification and characterization of additional CD28 and B7 family members including programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) (B7-H1), and(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) Th1-mediated demyelinating disease of the CNS that serves as a model for multiple sclerosis. A critical event in the pathogenesis of EAE is the entry of both Ag-specific and Ag-nonspecific T lymphocytes into the CNS. In the present report, we investigated the role of the CXC chemokine CXCL10(More)
The PD-1-PDL1 pathway plays a critical role in regulating autoimmune diabetes as blockade or deficiency of PD-1 or PDL1 results in accelerated disease in NOD mice. We explored the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these autoimmune responses by investigations involving various gene-deficient mice on the NOD background. Administration of(More)