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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T lymphocyte-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, demyelination, and paralysis. We previously demonstrated a role for chemokines in acute and relapsing EAE pathogenesis. Presently, we investigated the role of CC chemokine receptor 2(More)
A new regulatory T (T reg) cell-specific, FoxP3-GFP-hCre bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse was crossed to a conditional Dicer knockout (KO) mouse strain to analyze the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development and function of T reg cells. Although thymic T reg cells developed normally in this setting, the cells showed evidence of altered(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory molecule expressed on activated T cells, however, the biological context in which PD-1 controls T cell tolerance remains unclear. Using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we showed that unlike naïve or activated islet antigen-specific T cells, tolerized islet antigen-specific T cells moved freely and did not(More)
The past decade has seen a significant increase in the number of potentially tolerogenic therapies for treatment of new-onset diabetes. However, most treatments are antigen nonspecific, and the mechanism for the maintenance of long-term tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we developed an antigen-specific therapy, insulin-coupled antigen-presenting(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is an endemic murine pathogen that induces a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in susceptible mouse strains. The disease is characterized by central nervous system mononuclear cell infiltration and presents as chronic, progressive paralysis. The expression of CC and C-x-C chemokines in the central(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, demyelination, and paralysis. Recent studies describing the relationship of chemokine expression with development of clinical disease have led to the hypothesis that distinct chemokine receptors(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces a demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS) in susceptible mouse strains with accompanying histopathology characterized by mononuclear cell infiltrates. In susceptible strains of mice such as SJL, virus establishes a persistent infection in macrophages, induces a CNS infiltration by(More)
The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) constrains type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. However, how PD-1 influences diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells during natural diabetes is not fully understood. To address this question, we developed a novel model to investigate antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells under physiological conditions(More)
Infection elicits CD4(+) memory T lymphocytes that participate in protective immunity. Although memory cells are the progeny of naïve T cells, it is unclear that all naïve cells from a polyclonal repertoire have memory cell potential. Using a single-cell adoptive transfer and spleen biopsy method, we found that in mice, essentially all microbe-specific(More)