Brian T. Chait

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An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all(More)
Ion channels exhibit two essential biophysical properties; that is, selective ion conduction, and the ability to gate-open in response to an appropriate stimulus. Two general categories of ion channel gating are defined by the initiating stimulus: ligand binding (neurotransmitter- or second-messenger-gated channels) or membrane voltage (voltage-gated(More)
Voltage-dependent K+ channels are members of the family of voltage-dependent cation (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) channels that open and allow ion conduction in response to changes in cell membrane voltage. This form of gating underlies the generation of nerve and muscle action potentials, among other processes. Here we present the structure of KvAP, a(More)
Living cells regulate the activity of their ion channels through a process known as gating. To open the pore, protein conformational changes must occur within a channel's membrane-spanning ion pathway. KcsA and MthK, closed and opened K(+) channels, respectively, reveal how such gating transitions occur. Pore-lining 'inner' helices contain a 'gating hinge'(More)
The ClC chloride channels catalyse the selective flow of Cl- ions across cell membranes, thereby regulating electrical excitation in skeletal muscle and the flow of salt and water across epithelial barriers. Genetic defects in ClC Cl- channels underlie several familial muscle and kidney diseases. Here we present the X-ray structures of two prokaryotic ClC(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are proteinaceous assemblies of approximately 50 MDa that selectively transport cargoes across the nuclear envelope. To determine the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC, we collected a diverse set of biophysical and proteomic data, and developed a method for using these data to localize the NPC's 456 constituent proteins(More)
As the sole site of nucleocytoplasmic transport, the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has a vital cellular role. Nonetheless, much remains to be learned about many fundamental aspects of NPC function. To further understand the structure and function of the mammalian NPC, we have completed a proteomic analysis to identify and classify all of its protein(More)
Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies can prevent infection, which suggests that vaccines that elicit such antibodies would be protective. Thus far, however, few broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies that occur naturally have been characterized. To determine whether these antibodies are part of a larger group of related molecules, we cloned(More)
The development of a germinating embryo into an autotrophic seedling is arrested under conditions of water deficit. This ABA-mediated developmental checkpoint requires the bZIP transcription factor ABI5. Here, we used abi3-1, which is also unable to execute this checkpoint, to investigate the relative role of ABI3 and ABI5 in this process. In wild-type(More)
Beclin 1, a mammalian autophagy protein that has been implicated in development, tumour suppression, neurodegeneration and cell death, exists in a complex with Vps34, the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K) that mediates multiple vesicle-trafficking processes including endocytosis and autophagy. However, the precise role of the Beclin 1-Vps34(More)