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Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
The 2011/12 season was characterised by unusually late influenza A (H3N2) activity in the United Kingdom (UK). We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 2011/12 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) in a test-negative case–control study in primary care. Overall VE against confirmed influenza A (H3N2) infection, adjusted for age, surveillance scheme(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) among residents in nursing homes in Northern Ireland. METHODS Between January 2004 and May 2006, retrospective histories of hospital admissions, antimicrobial treatment and(More)
The early experience of the United Kingdom (UK) is that influenza B has dominated the influenza 2012/13 season. Overall trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against all laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care was 51% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27% to 68%); TIV adjusted VE against influenza A alone or influenza B(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was confirmed by laboratory or recorded on(More)
The effectiveness of the 2012/13 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) was assessed using a test-negative case-control study of patients consulting primary care with influenza-like illness in the United Kingdom. Strain characterisation was undertaken on selected isolates. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against confirmed influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B(More)
The United Kingdom implemented a containment strategy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 through administering antiviral agents (AVs) to patients and their close contacts. This observational household cohort study describes the effect of AVs on household transmission. We followed 285 confirmed primary cases in 259 households with 761 contacts. At 2 weeks, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To report a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; ribotype 027) between June 2007 and August 2008, describe infection control measures, and evaluate the impact of restricting the use of fluoroquinolones in controlling the outbreak. DESIGN Outbreak investigation in 3 acute care hospitals of the Northern Health and Social Care(More)
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April-June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious intestinal disease (IID), usually presenting as diarrhoea and vomiting, is frequently preventable. Though often mild and self-limiting, its commonness makes IID an important public health problem. In the mid 1990s around 1 in 5 people in England suffered from IID a year, costing around pound0.75 billion. No routine information source(More)