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BACKGROUND Influenza is a common respiratory disease that may affect a large proportion of the population annually. Vaccination is recommended for those most at risk of complications; namely everyone aged 65 and over and those under 65 who are immunosuppressed or who have chronic disease. OBJECTIVE To explore the variations in influenza vaccination rates(More)
Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was laboratory-confirmed or recorded on the(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was confirmed by laboratory or recorded on(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) among residents in nursing homes in Northern Ireland. METHODS Between January 2004 and May 2006, retrospective histories of hospital admissions, antimicrobial treatment and(More)
The United Kingdom implemented a containment strategy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 through administering antiviral agents (AVs) to patients and their close contacts. This observational household cohort study describes the effect of AVs on household transmission. We followed 285 confirmed primary cases in 259 households with 761 contacts. At 2 weeks, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To report a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; ribotype 027) between June 2007 and August 2008, describe infection control measures, and evaluate the impact of restricting the use of fluoroquinolones in controlling the outbreak. DESIGN Outbreak investigation in 3 acute care hospitals of the Northern Health and Social Care(More)
Following the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus in North America in April 2009, the first UK cases were reported on 27 April 2009. Several existing and new surveillance systems were used to investigate the first cases, to monitor the unfolding pandemic and to measure the impact and effectiveness of the various countermeasures that(More)