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The 2011/12 season was characterised by unusually late influenza A (H3N2) activity in the United Kingdom (UK). We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 2011/12 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) in a test-negative case–control study in primary care. Overall VE against confirmed influenza A (H3N2) infection, adjusted for age, surveillance scheme(More)
The early experience of the United Kingdom (UK) is that influenza B has dominated the influenza 2012/13 season. Overall trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against all laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care was 51% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27% to 68%); TIV adjusted VE against influenza A alone or influenza B(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza is a common respiratory disease that may affect a large proportion of the population annually. Vaccination is recommended for those most at risk of complications; namely everyone aged 65 and over and those under 65 who are immunosuppressed or who have chronic disease. OBJECTIVE To explore the variations in influenza vaccination rates(More)
Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) among residents in nursing homes in Northern Ireland. METHODS Between January 2004 and May 2006, retrospective histories of hospital admissions, antimicrobial treatment and(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was laboratory-confirmed or recorded on the(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was confirmed by laboratory or recorded on(More)