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The consequences of polyandry for female fitness are controversial. Sexual conflict studies and a meta-analysis of mating rates in insects suggest that there is a longevity cost when females mate repeatedly. Even so, compensatory material benefits can elevate egg production and fertility, partly because polyandry ensures an adequate sperm supply. Polyandry(More)
Sexual selection is a major force behind the rapid evolution of male genital morphology among species. Most within-species studies have focused on sexual selection on male genital traits owing to events during or after copulation that increase a male's share of paternity. Very little attention has been given to whether genitalia are visual signals that(More)
Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been(More)
There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a(More)
Female crickets can exert post-copulatory mating preferences by prematurely removing a male's spermatophore after copulation, which terminates sperm transfer. Although most models of sexual selection assume that female mating preferences are heritable, there has been little work addressing genetic variation underlying post-copulatory mate choice. We used a(More)
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