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Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation - the generation and detection of electric currents - to explore their surroundings. Although electrosensory systems include some of the most extensively understood circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system, relatively little is known quantitatively about how fish electrolocate objects. We believe a(More)
We measured and mapped the electric fields produced by three species of neotropical electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Rham phichthyoidea, Hypopomidae), formerly Hypopomus. These species produce biphasic pulsed discharges from myogenic electric organs. Spatio-temporal false-color maps of the electric organ discharges measured on the(More)
We present detailed measurements of the electric organ discharge of the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia sp. These maps illuminate, with high resolution in both space and time, the electric organ discharge potential and electric field patterns in the water about the fish and on the skin surface itself. The results demonstrate that the electric organ(More)
Inexpensive multimedia computers offer new possibilities for mixing video and computer images, videotaping these mixed images, and extracting quantitative data from videotape. In this paper we describe methods for mixing images from a video camera and a Macintosh computer display using chroma keying, and we describe a simple circuit for analog video mixing(More)
Neuroethological experiments often require video images of animal behavior and recordings of physiological data to be acquired simultaneously, synchronized with each other, stored, and analyzed together. The use of inexpensive multimedia computers offers new possibilities for mixing video images, analog voltages, and computer data, storing these combined(More)
The electric organ discharge (EOD) potential was mapped on the skin and midplane of several Apteronotus leptorhynchus. The frequency components of the EOD on the surface of the fish have extremely stable amplitude and phase. However, the waveform varies considerably with different positions on the body surface. Peaks and zero crossings of the potential(More)
The weakly electric fish, Gnathonemus peters;;, explores its environment by generating pulsed elecbic fields and detecting small pertwbations in the fields resulting from nearby objects. Accordingly, the fISh detects and discriminates objects on the basis of a sequence of elecbic "images" whose temporal and spatial properties depend on the timing of the(More)
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