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Pharyngeal occlusion during obstructive apnea is thought to be an inspiratory-related event; however, occlusion also occurs in the absence of negative intrathoracic pressure. We hypothesized that inspiratory-related pharyngeal occlusion would be preceded by significant expiratory narrowing. Eight sleeping patients with obstructive apnea were studied.(More)
It has been proposed that the gender difference in sleep apnea prevalence is related to gender differences in upper airway structure and function. We hypothesized that men would have smaller retropalatal cross-sectional area and higher compliance during sleep compared with women. Using upper airway imaging, we measured upper airway cross-sectional area and(More)
We hypothesized that a decreased susceptibility to the development of hypocapnic central apnea during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in women compared with men could be an explanation for the gender difference in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. We studied eight men (age 25-35 yr) and eight women in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle (age(More)
We wished to determine the effect of reduced ventilatory drive (hypopnea) on upper airway patency in humans during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep. We studied nine subjects (58 trials) spanning the spectrum of susceptibility to upper airway collapse including normals, snorers and patients with mild sleep apnea. Hypocapnic hypopnea was induced by abrupt(More)
1. It has been proposed that the upper airway is more compliant during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in a group of subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. 2. On the first night, the effect of sleep stage on the relationship of retropalatal(More)
It has been proposed that the upper airway compliance should be highest during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Evidence suggests that the increased compliance is secondary to an increased retroglossal compliance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of sleep stage on the relationship of retroglossal cross-sectional area (CSA; visualized with a(More)
Instillation of surfactant into the pharyngeal lumen reduces the pressure required to reopen an occluded airway, and decreases the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI). The authors hypothesised that surfactant also reduces the sleep-related increase in pharyngeal resistance. To test this hypothesis two single blind, crossover, placebo-controlled studies were(More)
In the extracellular space, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is metabolized by the zinc metalloendopeptidase EC3.4.24.15 (EP24.15) to form the pentapeptide, GnRH-(1-5). GnRH-(1-5) diverges in function and mechanism of action from GnRH in the brain and periphery. GnRH-(1-5) acts on the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 101 (GPR101) to sequentially(More)
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