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The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of molecular mechanisms/processes that control differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) during normal development and maturation of the vasculature, as well as how these mechanisms/processes are altered in vascular injury or disease. A major challenge in(More)
RATIONALE Macrophages change their phenotype and biological functions depending on the microenvironment. In atherosclerosis, oxidative tissue damage accompanies chronic inflammation; however, macrophage phenotypic changes in response to oxidatively modified molecules are not known. OBJECTIVE To examine macrophage phenotypic changes in response to oxidized(More)
A hallmark of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation in atherosclerosis and restenosis is suppression of SMC differentiation marker genes, proliferation, and migration. Blockade of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (IKCa1) has been shown to inhibit restenosis after carotid balloon injury in the rat; however, whether IKCa1 plays(More)
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) is a Rel homology transcription factor classically known for its osmosensitive role in regulating cellular homeostasis during states of hypo- and hypertonic stress. A recently growing body of research indicates that TonEBP is not solely regulated by tonicity,(More)
OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that upregulation of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)3.1) is necessary for mitogen-induced phenotypic modulation in isolated porcine coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The objective of the present study was to determine the role of K(Ca)3.1 in the regulation of coronary SMC phenotypic(More)
OBJECTIVE We have previously shown that the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5), regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation, but the role of NFAT5 in atherosclerosis is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if NFAT5 expression in bone marrow (BM)-derived cells altered atherosclerotic development and(More)
Arterial injury models for coronary artery disease have demonstrated an enhanced expression and function of either the endothelin(A) or endothelin(B) (ET(A) or ET(B)) receptor subtype. We hypothesized that organ culture would enhance the physiological function of ET receptors in the porcine right coronary artery. Arteries were either cold stored (4 degrees(More)
A weakness of many animal models of diabetes mellitus is the failure to use insulin therapy, which typically results in severe body wasting. Data collected from such studies must be interpreted cautiously to separate the effects of hyperglycemia from those of starvation. We provide several algorithms that were used by us in two long-term (20-week)(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that preferentially forms at hemodynamically compromised regions of altered shear stress patterns. Endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) undergo phenotypic modulation during atherosclerosis. An in vitro coculture model was developed to determine the role of hemodynamic regulation of EC and SMC(More)
There is evidence suggesting that adaptive increases in GLUT4 and mitochondria in skeletal muscle occur in parallel. It has been reported that raising cytosolic Ca(2+) in myocytes induces increases in mitochondrial enzymes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) induces an increase in GLUT4. We found that raising(More)