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Theileria annulata and T. parva are closely related protozoan parasites that cause lymphoproliferative diseases of cattle. We sequenced the genome of T. annulata and compared it with that of T. parva to understand the mechanisms underlying transformation and tropism. Despite high conservation of gene sequences and synteny, the analysis reveals unequally(More)
The tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata is endemic in many sub-tropical countries and causes the bovine disease tropical theileriosis. Although the parasite is known to be highly diverse, detailed information is lacking on the genetic structure of natural populations and levels of multiplicity of infection in the cattle host. With the(More)
We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or(More)
Parasites have evolved a plethora of mechanisms to ensure their propagation and evade antagonistic host responses. The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria is the only eukaryote known to induce uncontrolled host cell proliferation. Survival of Theileria-transformed leukocytes depends strictly on constitutive nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about how apicomplexan parasites have evolved to infect different host species and cell types. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva invade and transform bovine leukocytes but each species favours a different host cell lineage. Parasite-encoded proteins secreted from the intracellular macroschizont stage within the leukocyte(More)
Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1)(More)
Theileria parasites invade and transform bovine leukocytes causing either East Coast fever (T. parva), or tropical theileriosis (T. annulata). Susceptible animals usually die within weeks of infection, but indigenous infected cattle show markedly reduced pathology, suggesting that host genetic factors may cause disease susceptibility. Attenuated live(More)
Tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the(More)
Infection of bovine leucocytes by Theileria annulata results in establishment of transformed, infected cells. Infection of the host cell is known to promote constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors that have the potential to be beneficial or detrimental. In this study we have compared the effect of LPS activation on uninfected(More)
Theileria annulata, an intracellular parasite of bovine lymphoid cells, induces substantial phenotypic alterations to its host cell including continuous proliferation, cytoskeletal changes and resistance to apoptosis. While parasite induced modulation of host cell signal transduction pathways and NFκB activation are established, there remains considerable(More)