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The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in triceps-surae tendon stiffness (TST K) could affect running economy (RE) in highly trained distance runners. The intent was to induce increased TST K in a subgroup of runners by an added isometric training program. If TST K is a primary determinant of RE, then the energy cost of running (EC) should(More)
The sliding filament and cross-bridge theories of muscle contraction provide discrete predictions of the tetanic force-length relationship of skeletal muscle that have been tested experimentally. The active force generated by a maximally activated single fiber (with sarcomere length control) is maximal when the filament overlap is optimized and is(More)
ATP provides the energy in our muscles to generate force, through its use by myosin ATPases, and helps to terminate contraction by pumping Ca(2+) back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, achieved by Ca(2+) ATPase. The capacity to use ATP through these mechanisms is sufficiently high enough so that muscles could quickly deplete ATP. However, this potentially(More)
The purpose of this study was to choose between two popular models of skeletal muscle: one with the parallel elastic component in parallel with both the contractile element and the series elastic component (model A), and the other in which it is in parallel with only the contractile element (model B). Passive and total forces were obtained at a variety of(More)
Twitch potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle are two conditions in which force production is affected by the stimulation history. Twitch potentiation is the increase in the twitch active force observed after a tetanic contraction or during and following low-frequency stimulation. There is evidence that the mechanism responsible for potentiation is(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of three factors that modify twitch contraction amplitude in the rat gastrocnemius muscle in situ: posttetanic potentiation, fatigue, and caffeine. Posttetanic (200 Hz for 1 s) twitch responses were observed before and after 15 Hz stimulation for 6 min (group FS), injection of caffeine (75 mg/kg(More)
The anaerobic threshold (AnT) is defined as the highest sustained intensity of exercise for which measurement of oxygen uptake can account for the entire energy requirement. At the AnT, the rate at which lactate appears in the blood will be equal to the rate of its disappearance. Although inadequate oxygen delivery may facilitate lactic acid production,(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine whether elite male golfers with chronic low back pain (CLBP) exhibit different abdominal muscle activity patterns during the golf swing than asymptomatic control (AC) golfers and 2) to determine whether elite male golfers with CLBP experience greater fatigue in the abdominal muscles than AC(More)
Repetitive activation of a skeletal muscle results in potentiation of the twitch contractile response. Incompletely fused tetanic contractions similar to those evoked by voluntary activation may also be potentiated by prior activity. We aimed to investigate the role of stimulation frequency on the enhancement of unfused isometric contractions in rat medial(More)
Skeletal muscle force production following repetitive contractions is preferentially reduced when muscle is evaluated with low-frequency stimulation. This selective impairment in force generation is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF) and could be dependent on the contraction type. The purpose of this study was to compare LFF after concentric and eccentric(More)