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Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
The thalamus relays sensori-motor information to the cortex and is an integral part of cortical executive functions. The precise distribution of thalamic projections to the cortex is poorly characterized, particularly in mouse. We employed a systematic, high-throughput viral approach to visualize thalamocortical axons with high sensitivity. We then(More)
Efficient and accurate digital reconstruction of neurons from large-scale 3D microscopic images remains a challenge in neuroscience. We propose a new automatic 3D neuron reconstruction algorithm, TReMAP, which utilizes 3D Virtual Finger (a reverse-mapping technique) to detect 3D neuron structures based on tracing results on 2D projection planes. Our fully(More)
Single-particle tracking of biomolecular probes has provided a wealth of information about intracellular trafficking and the dynamics of proteins and lipids in the cell membrane. Conventional mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis of single-particle trajectories often assumes that probes are moving in a uniform environment. However, the observed(More)
Cuprizone intoxication is one of several animal models used to study demyelination and remyelination. Early treatment protocols exposed mice to cuprizone for 6 weeks to induce demyelination; however, more recent reports have varied exposure times from 4 to 5 weeks. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal exposure of cuprizone in C57BL/6 mice(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes. METHODS We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T(More)
We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image analysis with precise control of physical probes such as electrophysiology microelectrodes in brain tissue in vivo. Adaptive pipette positioning(More)
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