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Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
The thalamus relays sensori-motor information to the cortex and is an integral part of cortical executive functions. The precise distribution of thalamic projections to the cortex is poorly characterized, particularly in mouse. We employed a systematic, high-throughput viral approach to visualize thalamocortical axons with high sensitivity. We then(More)
Cuprizone intoxication is one of several animal models used to study demyelination and remyelination. Early treatment protocols exposed mice to cuprizone for 6 weeks to induce demyelination; however, more recent reports have varied exposure times from 4 to 5 weeks. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal exposure of cuprizone in C57BL/6 mice(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes. METHODS We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T(More)
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