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Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
A flurry of recent reports on the role of activating and inhibitory forms of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in natural killer (NK) cell activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have yielded widely divergent results. The role of the activating NK receptor encoded by the KIR3DS1 allele and its putative ligands, members(More)
NK cells play an integral role in the innate immune response by targeting virally infected and transformed cells with direct killing and providing help to adaptive responses through cytokine secretion. Whereas recent studies have focused on NK cells in HIV-1-infected adults, the role of NK cells in perinatally HIV-1-infected children is less studied. Using(More)
The lack of natural killer (NK) cell-specific markers, as well as the overlap among several common surface antigens and functional properties, has obscured the delineation between NK cells and dendritic cells. Here, novel subsets of peripheral blood CD3/14/19(neg) NK cells and monocyte/dendritic cell (DC)-like cells were identified on the basis of CD7 and(More)
Cuprizone intoxication is one of several animal models used to study demyelination and remyelination. Early treatment protocols exposed mice to cuprizone for 6 weeks to induce demyelination; however, more recent reports have varied exposure times from 4 to 5 weeks. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal exposure of cuprizone in C57BL/6 mice(More)
The development of small animal models for the study of HIV transmission is important for evaluation of HIV prophylaxis and disease pathogenesis. In humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, hematopoiesis is reconstituted by implantation of human fetal liver and thymus tissue (Thy/Liv) plus intravenous injection of autologous liver-derived(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes. METHODS We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has potent immunoregulatory effects on the maturation and the antigen-presenting cell (APC) function of dendritic cells (DCs). The molecular basis underlying these effects in DCs, however, is ill defined. It is well established that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key regulator of DC development, maturation, and APC function.(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play an important role against viral infections and cancer. This effect is achieved through a complex mosaic of inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by NK cells that ultimately determine the magnitude of the NK-cell response. The T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing (Tim)-3(More)
A major issue regarding T cell responses in autoimmunity is how the repertoire compares between the periphery and target organ. In type 1 diabetes, the status of at-risk or diabetic individuals can be monitored by measuring beta cell-specific T cells isolated from PBL, but whether these T cells accurately reflect the repertoire residing in the pancreatic(More)